Giffen products Explanation

While all regular goods and many that the inferior items obey law of demand, which claims that an ext quantities of commodities are demanded at less prices, there are details inferior products that perform not monitor the regulation of demand. Such form of commodities are termed together Giffen Goods. In situation of Giffen goods, over there is a optimistic relationship in between price and quantity demanded. Not all inferior goods are Giffen goods. However, Giffen goods are inferior goods. This type of commodities are named after a famous British statistician and also economist called Sir Robert Giffen. In situation of Giffen goods, when price increases, its quantity demanded additionally increases.

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Giffen’s observation characteristics that really poor workers increase their usage of cheap food choose bread, once its price increased. He cases that according to his study, the employees spent large portions the their earnings on bread as soon as its price increased. The factor behind this is that they to be unable to afford expensive foods items such together meat because their prices additionally increased. Since big portion of revenue was spent on bread (the cheapest food available), the workers were can not to buy expensive foods. Therefore, usage of bread increased even when that price increased. This scenario causes a paradoxical situation and also this paradox is popularly recognized as Giffen paradox.

Income and also Substitution results on Giffen Goods

In number 1, the consumer’s initial equilibrium point is E1, wherein original budget line M1N1 is tangent come the indifference curve IC1 . X-axis represent Giffen products (commodity X) and Y-axis denotes superior items (commodity Y). Assume the price that Giffen goods decreases. This reasons the spending plan line to transition outward and also forms a brand-new budget line M1N3. The consumer moves to the new equilibrium allude E3. In ~ this new equilibrium point the quantity demanded of commodity X decreases by X2X1. This activity represents the full price effect. Total price effect is composed of revenue effect and also substitution effect. By drawing a parallel spending plan line M2N2, we space eliminating the earnings effect. Hence, the consumer again move to an additional equilibrium allude E2. At E2, the amount demanded of commodity X boosts by X1X­3. This is since of the substitution impact alone.


Thus, income effect = X2X1 - X1X­3, which need to be negative. Furthermore, the substitution result is positive. In this way, the income effect and also substitution effect work in the contrary direction in instance of Giffen goods.

However, in the contemporary economy, the is complicated to find an instance for Giffen paradox. Furthermore, plenty of economists are not all set to think that Giffen paradox was actually observed. Hence, with little empirical proof it is plausible come conclude the the Giffen paradox in genuine life is an extremely unlikely.

Income and Substitution impacts on regular Goods

Normal goods, as the name indicate, are goods that we usage in ours day-to-day life. Civilization tend come use much more of normal items when as income increases.


Let us see what figure 2 depicts. The consumer’s original equilibrium is E1. At this point, the spending plan line M1N1 is tangent to the indifference curve IC1. Suppose the price the commodity X (normal goods) decreases and other things remain the same. The price decrease shifts the budget line come M1N3. Consequently, the customer moves to new equilibrium allude E3. Consumer’s activity from E1 to E3 is the total price effect. Allow us eliminate the income impact from the price effect by complying with Hicks’ version. To execute so, we attract an imaginary budget line M2N2, which is tangent to IC1 at E2. E2 equilibrium suggest after the elimination of the revenue effect.

Hence, full price impact = X1X3

Substitution impact = X1X2

Income effect =X2X3

Income and also Substitution results on inferior Goods

Inferior products are cheap alternatives for typical goods. Civilization use inferior goods when they are unable come afford normal items or high-quality goods. Therefore, usage of inferior items by a human being decreases if revenue increases above a details level. This suggests that inferior goods have solid positive substitution effect. However, as soon as the price of an inferior an excellent falls, the consequence will be an increase in the amount demanded since of significant negative earnings effect.


In figure 3, X-axis to represent inferior products (commodity X) and Y-axis denotes superior goods (commodity Y). The consumer’s original equilibrium suggest is E1. In ~ this equilibrium point, the spending plan line M1N1 is tangent come indifference curve IC1. If price of commodity X is reduced, brand-new budget heat M1N2 is formed and the customer moves to the brand-new equilibrium point E2. At E2, the budget line M1N2 is tangent to indifference curve IC2. Here, consumer’s movement from equilibrium allude E1 come equilibrium allude E2 is the total price effect. We follow Hicks’ version to get rid of the income result from the price effect. To achieve this, one imaginary spending plan line M2N3 is drawn in such a means that the is parallel to spending plan line M1N2 and also tangent come the initial indifference curve IC1 at E3. Hence, E3 is the equilibrium allude after the elimination of earnings effect.

Here, full price impact = X1X2

Substitution impact = X1X3

Thus, income effect = full price effect – substitution effect

i.e., income effect = X1X2 - X1X3= - X2X3

Thus, in instance of inferior goods, the positive substitution impact (X1X3) is stronger than the an adverse income effect (X2X3). This suggests that countless of the inferior products obey the legislation of demand.

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The adhering to table shows substitution and income impacts of a price decline on amount demanded the different varieties of commodities:

Table 1

Type of GoodSubstitution EffectIncome EffectTotal Effect





Inferior (but not Giffen)








emmanuel gyan top top October 12, 2018:

thank friend a lot for making me understand this concept ......long life

Tochukwu on June 12, 2018:

Thank you because that the simplification. Numerous students struggle to recognize income and also substitution impacts of price changes.