Brittany Ferri, MS, OTR-L, CCTP, is an work therapist, consultant, and author specializing in psychosocial rehab.

You are watching: How are a patella and scapula similar in form and function?


Jenny Sweigard, MD, is board-certified in inner medicine. She is one in-patient medical professional at Novant wellness Huntersville Medical center in phibìc Carolina." data-inline-tooltip="true">Jenny Sweigard, MD
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Jenny Sweigard, MD, is board-certified in interior medicine. She is one in-patient medical professional at Novant health Huntersville Medical center in phibìc Carolina.


The scapula, better known together the shoulder blade, is a triangle bone that serves as a joining force in between the clavicle and the humerus. This bone is situated posteriorly (on the back fifty percent of the body). The scapula plays vital role in stabilizing the various other bones affiliated in the valuation of shoulder motion. Numerous muscles are located in the area of the shoulder girdle, including rotator cuff muscles, nerve networks such together the brachial plexus, and also upper eight muscles.


The blood it is provided to the scapula is regularly impaired in neurological conditions such as cerebrovascular crashes or strokes and other brain hemorrhages. This can reason movement impairments and also functional disabilities in those with shoulder dysfunction. This can lead to a range of other issues, including impingement and subluxation.


Anatomy

With the location of the scapula being posterior, meaning on the ago of the body, there space some muscle from several groups that pat a role in the movement. The rotator cuff muscles lie directly above the scapula, along with the top part of the top arm muscles, including the deltoids and biceps tendons.


Two necessary arteries, the axillary artery and the subclavian artery, operation anterior to the scapula and also posterior come the clavicle. Additionally, as result of the location of the scapula ~ above the axilla, there are plenty of lymph nodes and lymph networks in this area which help with liquid drainage and balance in ~ the body.


One abnormality affect the development of the scapula is Sprengel’s deformity. This rare congenital bones disorder reasons one shoulder blade to be too high ~ above one side of the body. The level of displacement the the shoulder tongue can selection from two to 10 centimeters.


Depending on the level that scapula dysfunction, this abnormal and also asymmetrical posture can also lead come deformity that the neck together with chronic pain.


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function

The scapula is responsible because that several movements which room integral to daily movement and smooth upper extremity motion. Protraction and also retraction of the scapula assist with motion of the pectoral girdle and also chest muscle both forward and back, respectively. Elevation and also depression that the scapula assist with the activity of the entire shoulder capsule up and also down, watched in movements such together shrugging the the shoulders.


Upward rotation and also downward rotation the the scapula aid with stabilization the the shoulder capsule throughout excessive arm motion. Upward rotation the the scapula occurs once the arm moves both up and outward simultaneously. This seemingly straightforward motion requires far-ranging shoulder stabilization because of the intricacies that the humerus and scapula. Comparable stability is compelled for downward rotation the the scapula once the arm moves both down and also inward simultaneously.


The sample of muscle contractions and motion that occurs between the scapula and also the humerus is called the scapulohumeral rhythm, which is a huge focus of physical therapy for shoulder pain. As mentioned, this is frequently a critical impairment in those influenced by neurological occasions such together a stroke as result of a blockage of nerve and also blood it is provided to this area.


An added mechanism the scapula dram a huge role in is the scapulothoracic rhythm, which is the pattern of muscle contractions and motion the occurs in between the scapula and the thoracic vertebra. Comparable to the scapulohumeral rhythm, this partnership is crucial to the security of the shoulder joint together a whole.


connected Conditions

Due come the strength and location that the scapula bone, fractures room rare and also only happen in instances of serious or major multiple trauma. Ligaments are an important to assist in the maintenance of scapula stability. Injury come the ligaments bordering the scapula can happen and result in a range of symptoms depending upon the severity. This can reason mild pain and loss of variety of activity in straightforward cases or symptoms mimicking the of nerve damage, whereby there is no activity in the scapula as result of loss of ligament function.


Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Shoulder impingement syndrome is partially caused by impaired scapular movements. This offer to place undue press on the nerves and blood it is provided running v the scapular muscles. When too much pressure is put on nerves end an extended period of time, this can lead to a irreversible loss of nerve function. because that this reason, instant treatment of shoulder impingement is paramount come restoring function and typical movement.


Subluxation

Subluxation is a problem that can occur in any joint in the body. Subluxation of the shoulder joint occurs from excessive forms the ligament laxity. This can be challenging to reverse and, again, at an early stage intervention is essential to minimize the complications which can an outcome from this condition. Splints and also braces are an extremely helpful in promoting appropriate posture and preventing additional injury. Rest will assist lessen the pressure placed on the joint, together with decreasing in its entirety swelling and also pain.



Splints, braces, or slings have the right to be provided by medical experts or through treatment through a physics or occupational therapist as component of a treatment course.


Medical experts can determine whether a far-reaching loss of function has developed when deciding whether therapy is suggested as part of the individual’s treatment. A therapy setup of treatment would encompass light exercise, positioning, modalities for pain relief, in addition to light increase exercises as soon as the separation, personal, instance is cleared by their doctor.


Subluxation generally occurs together a result of a neurological incident, such together a brain hemorrhage or a stroke. This causes loss that nerve duty to the huge nerve network, referred to as the brachial plexus, i m sorry lies end the shoulder joint. This method partial or finish loss the motor and sensory duty in the impaired arm.


In such instances, as result of the likelihood of simultaneous cognitive impairment, a treatment an approach called neuromuscular re-education is a huge component that physical and also occupational therapy treatments. This form of therapy guides an separation, personal, instance to complete basic strengthening tasks (and eventually functional activities such together dressing, toileting, bathing, and also more) making use of outlined approaches in stimulate to assist with reshaping the mind and building motor programs.

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By building new yet familiar motor programs, therapists target to develop normal and purposeful movement.