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modern nursing started in north Europe in the early on 19th century with the protestant Deaconess Movement. The deaconesses, housed in motherhouses, cared for the sick and also infirm. The very first secular effort to train nurses started in 1836, when the Reverend Theodore and Friederike Fliedner established a college in Kaiserwerth, Germany, supplying three-year process in nursing. Graduates could dispense medicines and nurse ill and convalescing patients, and by 1864 the school had trained 1600 nurses and also had motherhouses as much away together Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

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In 1851, Florence Nightingale checked out the Kaiserwerth school. Nightingale, who came from a well-to-do brothers family, made decision to dedicate her life come the care of the sick. In 1854 she volunteered to serve during the Crimean War, and also was appalled by the absence of trained nurses and orderlies. Upon her arrival, Nightingale reinvented the poorly ventilated, vermin-infested Barrack Hospital in Scutari into a clean, well-managed facility, and also within six months the fatality rate dropped from 40 to 2 percent. After ~ the battle Nightingale went back to London and also founded her own nursing school. In 1859, Nightingale released Notes on Nursing,which became required reading for every nursing students.

The cover of the 1860 version of note on Nursing.

regardless of these european advances, American nursing to be still in that infancy at the outbreak that the civil War. There had been no effort at organized nurse training. Together in Europe, it compelled a war to bring around reform.

when the battle began, the only nurses were in the spiritual orders, specific the Catholic sister of Mercy and also the sisters of Charity. These registered nurses soon were overwhelmed by the big number of casualties the war produced, forcing the U.S. Government to develop the army Nursing service in 1861. The Service, top by Dorothea Dix, confronted many obstacles, consisting of the prejudice of masculine surgeons. Dix herself refused to accept any woman who was no "plain that appearance" and at the very least thirty years old.

Women nurses usually operated in base hospitals well away indigenous the prior lines. But some, like Clara Barton, served in battlefield hospitals, earning Barton the nickname "Angel that the Battlefield." Other notable nurses during the Civil war included author Louisa may Alcott, whose publication Hospital Sketches describes the touching and also dramatic life together a Civil battle nurse. Runaway slave Harriet Tubman additionally served as a nurse during the war, and for her job-related on the Sea islands of southern Carolina, Tubman got a federal government pension in 1892.

Title page of Alcott’s Hospital Sketches.

The work-related of these and thousands of various other women progressed the professional status of nursing in the united States. In 1861 a experienced nursing institution was organized in new York City, and also others followed during and after the war in numerous locations throughout the country. The polite War showed to be a watershed in the pursuit toward expert nursing in the joined States.

Alcott, Louisa May. Hospital Sketches. Boston: James Redpath, 1863.

Edmonds, S. Emma. Nurse and Spy in the Union Army: comprising the Adventures and also Experiences the a woman in Hospitals, Camps, and Battle-Fields. Hartford: W. S. Williams & Co., 1865.

Livermore, mar A. Mine Story of the War: A Woman"s rigid of 4 Years an individual Experience as a Nurse in the Union Army. Hartford: A. D. Worthington and Company, 1890.

“The last Letter Home,” one illustration indigenous Livermore’s book.

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Nightingale, Florence. Notes on Nursing: What it Is, and What the Is Not. Brand-new York: D. Appleton and Company, 1860.