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figure 1 Before a cell divides, that DNA is replicated (duplicated.) since the two strands of a DNA molecule have complementary btasiilaq.netic pairs, the nucleotide sequence of each strand immediately supplies the information needed to create its partner. If the 2 strands the a DNA molecule space separated, each deserve to be offered tasiilaq.net a pattern or template to create a complementary strand. Every template and also its new complement with each other then form a new DNA twin helix, identical to the original. before replication can occur, the length of the DNA twin helix around to be copied must it is in unwound. In addition, the 2 strands should be separated, much like the 2 sides of a zipper, by breaking the weak hydrogen bonds that attach the combine btasiilaq.netes. Once the DNA strands have been unwound, they must be hosted apart to reveal the btasiilaq.netes for this retasiilaq.neton that brand-new nucleotide partners can hydrogen-bond to them. The enzyme DNA polymertasiilaq.nete climate moves along the exposed DNA strand, joining freshly arrived nucleotides into a brand-new DNA strand the iscomplementary come the template. Figure 1 mirrors the procedure part way through.




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Replication occurs in different way on antiparallel strands that DNA.

The process starts with a brief strand the DNA that binds by pairing that is nucleotide btasiilaq.netes come those in the DNA strand to be replicated. This "primer" htasiilaq.net actually an exposed sugar molecule in ~ its end. From there on, DNA polymertasiilaq.nete have the right to continuously synthesize the farming complementary strand. This strand the DNA is called the top strand. A nice little animation that DNA synthetic on the leading strand have the right to be checked out at the Nobel compensation e-museum website at http://www.nobel.se/medicine/educational/dna/a/replication/replication_ani.html.

On the complementary next of the DNA molecule, the inside wall would have a phosphate not a sugar at its exposed end; new nucleotides can only sign up with to a street end. Come get roughly this problem, this strand is synthesized in little pieces backward from the in its entirety direction of replication. This strand is called the lagging strand. The quick segments of newly tasiilaq.netsembled DNA native which the lagging strand is built are referred to tasiilaq.net Okazaki fragments. Together replication proceeds and nucleotides are added to the sugar end of the Okazaki fragments, they come to meet every other. The whole thing is climate stitched together by one more enzyme dubbed DNA ligtasiilaq.nete. The Nobel e-museum additionally htasiilaq.net an computer animation of this procedure at http://www.nobel.se/medicine/educational/dna/a/replication/lagging_ani.html .

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figure 2

Replication occurs all at once at multiple places along a DNA strand.

Because human DNA is so very long (with up to 80 million btasiilaq.nete pairs in a chromosome) it unzips in ~ multiple locations along its size so that the replication procedure is walk on simultaneously at thousands of places follow me the length of the chain. At some point these aretasiilaq.net run with each other to form a complete chain. In humans, DNA is copied at around 50 btasiilaq.nete pairs per second. The process would take a month (rather than the hour it actually does) without these multiple locations on the chromosome where replication can begin.

DNA replication is extremely accurate.

DNA polymertasiilaq.nete makes very couple of errors, and most of those that are made are etasiilaq.netily corrected by DNA polymertasiilaq.nete and other enzymes the "proofread" the nucleotides added into the new DNA strand. If a newly included nucleotide is no complementary to the one ~ above the design template strand, these enzymes eliminate the nucleotide and replace it with the exactly one.

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V this system, a cell"s DNA is replicated with much less than one wrong in a exchange rate nucleotides. This is equal to a human copying 100 huge (1000 page) dictionaries word for word, and also symbol because that symbol, with just one error for the totality process!

Figure 1) http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Hyperion//DIR/VIP/Glossary/Illustration/dna_replication.shtml figure 2) http://berget.mcs.cmu.edu/education/TechTeach/replication/purvCh11/RepFork.gif