To define how a covalent bond forms. To apply the octet ascendancy to covalent compounds

You have currently seen instances of substances the contain covalent bonds. One substance stated previously to be water ((ceH2O)). You deserve to tell indigenous its formula that it is no an ionic compound; the is not written of a metal and also a nonmetal. Consequently, its properties are different from those that ionic compounds.

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Electron Sharing

Previously, we discussed ionic bonding whereby electrons deserve to be transferred from one atom to one more so that both atoms have an energy-stable outer electron shell. Due to the fact that most to fill electron shells have eight electrons in them, tasiilaq.netists referred to as this propensity the octet rule. However, there is another method an atom can attain a full valence shell: atoms deserve to share electrons.

This concept can be portrayed by using 2 hydrogen atoms, every of which has a single electron in its valence shell. (For little atoms such together hydrogen atoms, the valence shell will be the first shell, i m sorry holds only two electrons.) We have the right to represent the 2 individual hydrogen atoms as follows:


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The Lewis chart of 2 hydrogen atom sharing electron looks choose this:


This depiction of molecule is simplified more by utilizing a dash to stand for a covalent bond. The hydrogen molecule is then represented as follows:


Each fluorine atom contributes one valence electron, make a solitary bond and also giving every atom a finish valence shell, i beg your pardon fulfills the octet rule:


The circles present that each fluorine atom has actually eight electrons roughly it. Similar to hydrogen, we have the right to represent the fluorine molecule with a dash in ar of the bonding electrons:



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In this molecule, the hydrogen atom walk not have actually nonbonding electrons, while the fluorine atom has six nonbonding electron (three lone electron pairs). The circles display how the valence electron shells space filled for both atoms.

Example (PageIndex1)

Use Lewis diagrams to show the development of the following:

Cl2 HBr


a. Once two chlorine atoms kind a chlorine molecule, they share one pair of electrons. In Cl2 molecule, every chlorine atom is surrounded by one octet variety of electrons.

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The Lewis diagram for a Cl2 molecule is comparable to the one for F2 (shown above).