The head of the grasshopper is a hard capsule the contains large muscles, which operate the chewing mouthparts, and also the brain and subesophageal ganglion, which offer as the main centers the the worried system. Prominent on the outside of the capsule space a pair of antennae, two huge compound eyes, and also the downward command mouthparts. The antennae the grasshoppers space usually filiform (threadlike) but they may have actually other shapes, such together ensiform (broad at base, narrowing come tip) or clavate (expanded in ~ tip) (Fig. 2). Compound eyes differ in shape and also protuberance. They are usually somewhat round yet may be elliptical in grasshoppers through strongly slanted faces.

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Figure 2. Diagram of three forms of grasshopper antennae: filiform or threadlike, ensiform or sword-shaped, and also clavate or society shaped




Figure 3. Grasshopper head, front, side, and top views. Modeled after Trimerotropis pallidipennis (Burmeister).

The head capsule is divided into areas by visible sutures, exterior ridges (carinae), or by general location (Fig. 3). The height of the head in between the link eyes is well-known as the vertex. Behind the crest is the occiput, and in front of the peak is the fastigium. A pair of otherwise shaped depressions, the lateral foveolae, is often current in prior or in ~ the political parties of the fastigium. The front of the head in between the link eyes and also extending to the clypeus is known as the frons. A broad ridge, the frontal costa, runs under the center of the frons native the fastigium towards the margin of the clypeus. The next of the head listed below the link eye is named the gena or cheek. Grasshoppers have three basic eyes called ocelli — one above the base of each antenna and one centrally situated in the frontal costa. These and other parts and also appendages that the head are portrayed in number 3.

List of Grasshopper Parts

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The thorax, locomotion center of the grass-hopper, is a stout, boxlike structure consisting of three fused segments: the prothorax, mesothorax, and metathorax. Each segment bear a pair the legs. The 2nd segment bears a pair the fore-wings, the tegmina, and also the third segment a pair the membranous hindwings. The wings of a couple of species are decreased to tiny pads or are totally lacking. The top of the thoracic segment is dubbed the notum, the bottom the sternum, and also the sides the pleura.


Figure 4. Grasshopper pronotum, side and also top views. Modeled after Trimerotropis pallidpennis (Burmeister).

The pronotum situated simply behind the head is a prominent, saddle-shaped structure with lateral lobes that hide nearly every one of the propleura (Fig. 4). The pronotum has plenty of distinctive features valuable in separating both genera and species of grasshoppers. The integument (skin) may be almost smooth in some types and rough and also wrinkled in others. The dorsum or disk of the pronotum is divided into left and right halves by a longitudinal ridge, the median carina. The ridge different among species from barely visible to a conspicuously high crest. Transverse furrows run throughout the disk and also down the lateral lobes. These furrows, recognized as sulci, cut into the typical carina and also divide the disk into zones, the prozona in front and the metazona in the rear. In many varieties only one sulcus cuts the mean carina if in others two or 3 sulci reduced the median carina. The hind sulcus is thought about the principal sulcus; indigenous its place the length of the prozona and also metazona space measured.

The lateral lobes usually form an angle v the disk and also are separated from the decaying by lateral carinae that, depending upon the species, might be straight and also parallel or variously incurved or outcurved. The hind margin that the disk different from one acute edge to an obtuse angle, or may be convex, truncate, or emarginate.

The assorted shapes, sizes, and protuberance that the sternal sclerites afford trusted taxonomic characters (Fig. 5). A prosternal spine located in between the bases that the front legs is properties of members that the spurthroated subfamily. Shapes and also dimensions of the mesosternal and metasternal lobes and also interspaces are beneficial in separating certain varieties and subfamilies.


Figure 5. Sternum the thorax, bottom view. Modeled ~ Melanoplus bivittatus (Say) female.

List of Grasshopper Parts

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Although the 3 pairs that legs have actually the very same component parts, the hind pair, adjusted for jumping, room much bigger than the an initial and 2nd pair and bear an ext distinctive features. The color and markings the both the femur and also tibia differ amongst species. The durable femur has actually several surfaces and also ridges that have actually been provided names for easy referral (Fig. 6).


Figure 6. Grasshopper hindleg, views of outer and inner faces. Hindleg of Mermiria bivittata (Serville).

The long and slender tibia bears follow me its posterior edge a dual row the spines and distally two pairs of articulated spurs or calcars. The variety of spines and the length of calcars vary among species. The within medial area the the femur may have a longitudinal ridge bearing a collection of stridulatory pegs. Up and down activities of the hindlegs reason the pegs to scrape against a increased vein on each tegmen, i m sorry produces a song or signal peculiar to that species of grasshopper.

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The 2 pairs of grasshopper wings differ in shape, structure, and function (Fig. 7). The front pair, or tegmina, space leathery and narrow through the sides virtually parallel. The hind wings are membranous and fan-shaped. Contrasted with the tegmina, the hind pair add three time as much to flight lift. Both bag afford diagnostic characters that assist in the identification of species. The wing veins, sclerotized tubes providing strength to the wings, vary significantly in thickness. The tegmina vary from immaculate to distinctly spotted or marked. The hindwings of grasshoppers room usually hyaline. Members the one subfamily, the Oedipodinae or bandwinged grasshoppers, have wings with a dark submarginal band and have the disk colored.

Figure 7. Bandwinged grasshopper v left wing spread, optimal view. Composite model

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The hind region of the grasshopper’s body, the abdomen, is composed of 11 segment (Fig. 1). Segment ns is firmly fused v the metathorax and contains the auditory body organ with that is eardrum cover, the tympanum (Fig. 8).


Figure 8. Grasshopper male abdomen, next view and also enlarged side and also dorsal views of end. Modeled ~ Melanoplus packardii Scudder.

Segments II come VIII are ringlike in appearance and are separated native one another by pliable membranes. Every segment has a sclerotized tergum the covers not only the peak but also the political parties of the abdomen. A sclerotized sternum consist of the bottom. Pliable membranes different the terga native the sterna and with the intersegmental membranes allow the abdomen much flexibility, a requirement for respiratory movements, copulation, and also oviposition.

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The terminal segments of the abdomen are reduced and also modified come bear the external reproductive organs, the genitalia, and the associated structures (Fig. 8). These structures sell the most reliable taxonomic characters for separating spurthroated grasshoppers. Frameworks of the masculine are more distinctive than those of the female. The significant paired cerci are generally conical, yet in the males of part genera, e.g. Melanoplus, they have actually characteristic sizes and shapes. Likewise, the furcula, a pair the projections indigenous the posterior sheet of tergum X that males, different in size and also shape. The epiproct or supraanal plate, although around triangular, different sufficiently in shape and also rugosity to be taxonomically useful. The variations in shape and protuberances of the subgenital plate are also useful in identification. These structures are conveniently seen v a pocket magnifier of 10x magnification. A couple of distinctive structures, such together the lobes of the aedeagus, need the use of a stereomicroscope (magnification of 50x and greater) for clear identification.

The valves of the ovipositor are sometimes advantageous in separating species (Fig 1). The dorsal and also ventral pair of valves have various shapes and also denticulations. The center pair that valves are little and hidden.

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The sclerotized integument the the abdomen varies in color, patterns, and also texture among types and periodically affords differentiating taxonomic characters.