Chameleons are opportunistic predators feeding on a large selection of invertebprice and also vertebrate animals (e.g., Loveridge, 1953;

From: Feeding, 2000

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STEPHEN L. BARTEN, in Reptile Medicine and also Surgery (2nd Edition), 2006


Chameleons (Chamaeleo spp.) and also monitors (Varanus spp.) have actually long protrusible tongues that retract inside a sheath rostral to the glottis when not in use. Bacterial infection occasionally establishes within that sheath.14Symptoms incorporate inflammation, discharge, and also an inability to protrude the tongue because of adhesions in between the tongue and also sheath (Figure 39-10).

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In chameleons, hypocalcemia generally results from malnutrition, absence of ultraviolet B light, or renal disease. One of the initially symptoms of hypocalcemia in this group is negative muscle tone manifested as flaccid paralysis of the tongue. The impacted chameleons either cannot shoot their tongue at prey in a normal fashion or, if they perform, are unable to retract it so that it hangs from their mouth.

The pointer of the tongue in the Eco-friendly Iguana is darker than the rest of the tongue, which may be mistaken for glossitis.

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Reptiles 1

Barry Berkovitz, Peter Shellis, in The Teeth of Non-Mammalian Vertebprices, 2017


Chameleons are distinguished by their zygodactylous feet, their prehensile tail, their independently mobile stereoscopic eyes, their lengthy and also swiftly protrusible ballistic tongue and also their legendary capacity to change color. There are more than 180 species in 12 genera ( They are carnivorous and also their diet is composed mainly of insects, although the bigger species can be cannibalistic. Some tiny species of chameleons deserve to extfinish their tongue by even more than their body length. Tongue forecast is helped by forward activity of the hyoid apparatus and is very rapid. For example, during a strike at prey 20 cm in front of a Malagasy huge chameleon <Furcifer (Chameleo) oustaleti>, the tongue got to its full degree in 43 ms and also achieved a maximum velocity of 4.9 m/s. Chameleons can adjust the speed of tongue projection: the tongue contacted prey at a distance of 35 cm in just 71 ms and the maximum velocity reached 5.8 m/s (Wainwright et al., 1991). Prey is immobilized by adhesion to the sticky mucus coating the tongue surconfront, aided by muscular task at the pointer of the tongue.

The teeth of chameleons are acrodont (Fig. 6.78) and are not replaced. Tbelow are no teeth on the palate. The premaxilla is diminished in dimension and might bear up to 2 little teeth, whereas each maxilla and also dentary commonly bear in between 15 and also 22 teeth (Edmund, 1969). Tooth dimension rises from front to ago of the tooth row. At hatching there are around 10 small teeth in each maxilla and also mandible. Subsequently, larger, triangular, compressed, and tricuspid teeth are included to the ago of the jaws. Many kind of of these functions can be checked out in the dentition of Owen’s chameleon (Trioceros oweni) (Fig. 6.79).

The veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) has actually one tooth on the reduced premaxilla. Near hatching, tbelow are 11 mineralized teeth in each upper jaw quadrant and 9 in each lower jaw quadrant. After hatching, bigger additional teeth are included to the back of the jaws as room is made obtainable till there are up to 23 maxillary teeth and 21 dentary teeth in each jaw quadrant (Buchtová et al., 2013). The initially 9 teeth in the reduced jaw and 10 in the top jaw are small and also mineralize during embryonic advance. The following five teeth are bigger and also construct in the juvenile dentition (Fig. 6.80A). The most posterior teeth (nine teeth in the maxilla and salso in the dentary) are the largest and broadest in the dentition and possess extra side cusps (Buchtová et al., 2013). The acrodont teeth fuse to each other at their bases. Near hatching there are 11 in the upper jaw and 9 in the dentary, with a bigger egg tooth in the midline flanked on each side by the very small premaxillary tooth (Buchtová et al., 2013). There are no teeth on the palate.

KURT SCHWENK, in Feeding, 2000

1. Natural History

Chameleons are unique among lepidosaurs in their use of tongue forecast to capture prey. This actions is distinguished from typical iguanian lingual ingestion by its interjection of a ballistic (i.e., free-floating) stage at the finish of SO II such that the tongue is “launched” from the lingual procedure as a projectile, continuing on towards the prey by virtue of its very own inertia. In this sense, tongue “projection” is distinctive from tongue “protrusion” and the two behaviors need to not be conflated (Chapter 2). Tongue estimate is universally existing within Chamaeleonidae (sensu stricto) and is functional in neonates at birth (Bustard, 1965; personal observation). Variation in the chamaeleonid feeding system is virtually unstupassed away and the projectile device is assumed to be identical in all species. There are, yet, differences in superficial tongue form (Schwenk, unpublimelted observations), yet these might have no impact on attribute. Maximum estimate distances variety from one to two body lengths (individual observation), however each estimate is modulated according to visual assessment of prey distance (watch conversation of chameleon vision).

Chameleons are opportunistic predators feeding on a big selection of invertebprice and vertebprice pets (e.g., Loveridge, 1953; Bourgat, 1970; Burrage, 1973). None are herbivorous, and the occasional little of plant matter is undoubtedly ingested incidental to prey capture, although Bourgat (1972) assumed it could be intentionally consumed. A single, big species (C. melleri) has been displayed to consume prey as small as ants and also as huge as adult birds (e.g., Loveridge, 1953; Pitmale, 1958, 1962). Birds probably represent, proportionately and absolutely, the largest prey items apprehended through the tongue by any type of lizard. Tongue projection is supplied for capture of all prey items and also tright here is no obvious transition to jaw prehension via raising prey size as in other iguanians. Hence, even more than any kind of other lizard, chameleons are obligate tongue feeders and, in many situations, are unwilling or incapable of making use of the jaws for prey capture. When faced by a prey item directly in front of it, a C. jacksoni backed up along its perch to project its tongue rather than capture the insect in its jaws (individual observation). Burrage (1973:75) detailed that Bradypodion (Chamaeleo) pumilus was similarly committed to tongue projection. However before, he additionally argued that C. namaquensis occasionally sought escaping prey and also “snapped up the victim in their jaws in the normal saurian manner.” C. namaquensis is among only a few desert chameleons and is the just species that is truly terrestrial, thus it could be supposed to present inexplicable actions. Marx (1955) also reported a rare situation of jaw prehension in captive C. oshaugnessyi, which offered the sides of its jaws to master earthworms after repeated attempts at lingual prehension had actually failed (check out Section V,F,2). Chameleons also use the jaws for ritualized (and also totally ineffectual) biting in the time of agonistic habits (e.g., Bustard, 1965; Parcher, 1974).

Chameleons occupy narrow perches in complicated, three-dimensional environments in which rapid pursuit of prey is not possible. This is true also for little, semiterrestrial species (e.g., Brookesia), perhaps representing the primitive condition (Rieppel and Crumby, 1997; C. Crumly, personal communication), which climb via the irregularities of the ground-level environment and also the reduced reaches of little plants. Virtually all facets of chameleon morphology and also actions seem to be predicated on life among precarious perches—prehensile tail (e.g., Zippel et al., 1999), zygodactylus feet (e.g., Hurle et al., 1987), turreted eyes (watch previously discussion), cryptic coloration, color readjust and emphasis on visual communication (e.g., Parcher, 1974; Dodd, 1981; Okelo, 1986), slow-moving and delibeprice locomotion (Peterkid, 1984), muscle physiology (Abu-Ghalyun et al., 1988), and also rocking in the time of locomovement for background matching (e.g., Bustard, 1965; Fleishmale, 1992). Thus, it is likely that chameleons progressed ballistic tongue forecast as a means of capturing active prey without the need for lunge and also chase—the extreme expression of an ambush strategy acquired from a lingual feeding ancestor.

P.N. Ravindran, ... M. Divakaran, in Handbook of Herbs and also Spices (2nd Edition), Volume 2, 2012

28.9.3 Chameleon plant

Chameleon plant (Houttuynia cordata Thunb.; Chinese lizard plant, fish wort, heart leaf; Saururaceae) is a native of the South East Oriental region. Tbelow are two distinctive kinds differing in flavour: the Chinese array, native to China and also Vietnam, has actually a strong coriander-like aroma and resembles Vietnamese coriander (Eryngium foetidum); the Japanese selection has a lemony and ginger-favor aroma, and is dispersed in an area from Nepal to the Korean area, extfinishing to Japan. In these areas, the leaves of this plant are provided in a variety of neighborhood dishes, specifically in salads and also fish recipes. In Japan, it is additionally offered as a fresh leaf garnish for soups, salads and also sushi dishes. In China, its roots are offered as a vegetable. The major flavour-contributing components are myrcene and 2-undecanone. It is a medical plant via a prstove anti-inflammatory impact and has been discovered to be helpful in combating serious acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (Lau et al., 2008; Katzer, 2012b).

T. Christensen, ... A. Chilkoti, in Comprehensive Biophysics, 2012 MATα2 chameleon fusions

In an additional examine, the chameleon sequence from MATα2 was fprovided to the C termini of 2 hyperthermophilic proteins from Pyrococcus furiosus: pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase (Pf-CPC) and also methionine aminopeptidase (Pf-MAP).95 The second structure facets of the C termini of Pf-CCOMPUTER and also Pf-MAP are α helices and also β sheets, respectively, and also the chameleon sequence was fsupplied such that tright here was a direct transition from the second framework facets on the proteins to the chameleon sequence. Interestingly, crystal structures confirmed that the α helix in the Pf-PCP protein was extended by the chameleon sequence, whereas the chameleon sequence embraced a turn/β-sheet-choose structure in the Pf-MAP fusion protein. Another fusion protein was built wright here the chameleon sequence was inserted right into ribonuclease HII from Thermococcus kodakaraensis (Tk-RNase HII). Here, the chameleon sequence was presented either inside or exterior the α helix at the C terminus. When the chameleon sequence was located external the α helix, it did not embrace any type of second framework, but once the chameleon sequence was placed directly surrounding to the helix in Tk-RNase HII, the inserted peptide developed an α helix. These findings demonstrate that the condevelopment of the chameleon sequence counts on the surrounding secondary structure.

Dan Suan, ... Tri Giang Phan, in Methods in Cell Biology, 2013

3 Equipments

Below is a list of the equipments required to perform excitation lambda scans and the crucial points to look for.

3.1 Software-Tunable Ultrarapid Infra-Red (IR) Laser

We usage a Chameleon Vision II laser (Coherent Scientific) through a height power output of 3.6 W at 800 nm, which have the right to tune from 680 to 1080 nm at a price of 40 nm/s. The laser has integrated dispersion precompensation (prechirp). The laser wavelength and also dispersion compensation settings are regulated by the real-time computer system which likewise controls and synchronizes information acquisition by the microscopic lense.

3.2 Two-Photon Microscope through Electronic Laser Intensity Control

We use an upbest Zeiss 7MP two-photon microscopic lense (Carl Zeiss) with a W Plan-Apochromat 20×/1.0 DIC (UV) Vis–IR water immersion objective. Excitation fingerprints were percreated with an LBF 690 short pass IR blocking filter and also BSMP 690 dichroic for the NDD sideport. Four outside NDDs are supplied to detect blue (SP 485), green (BP 500–550), red (BP 565–610) and far red (BP 640–710) emissions. The laser beam is coupresulted in an acousto-optical modulator (AOM), which gives precise real-time digital manage of the laser power intensity. Mechanical laser intensity regulate tools such as half-wave plates and neutral density filters are also slow-moving and also imprecise for excitation fingerprinting. The laser, microscope, AOM, laser scanner and also peripherals in the 7MP are regulated by the real-time computer system. We use the ZEN software interconfront to percreate lambda scans making use of a macro function.

3.3 Light Meter

We usage a Fieldunderstand (Coherent Scientific) portable power/power meter to meacertain the laser power intensity at the objective. This is supplied to geneprice the laser calibration curve needed to perdevelop the excitation lambda shave the right to.

3.4 Dissecting Instruments

Dissecting scissors and also forceps to harvest organs and also tconcerns.

3.5 Stereomicroscope

We use a Stemi 2000 stereomicroscopic lense (Carl Zeiss) via a zoom element of 7 illuminated by a CL 1500 cold light resource with a convariation filter.

3.6 Cold Light Source via Output in the Violet Range

This is supplied to photoconvert the KikGR from green to red.

3.7 Imaging Chamber

We use a JG-23 ultraquiet imaging chamber (Warner Instruments).

Allison S. Young, ... Miriam S. Welgampola, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 2018

Episodic spontaneous or positional vertigo: vestibular migraine

Known as the chameleon among represent vertigo syndromes (Brandt, 2004), vestibular migraine (VM) presents with episodic spontaneous or positional vertigo, lasting minutes to days. Vertigo may be associated with migraine headaches, photophobia, phonophobia, or visual auras, however often occurs independently. Head motion intolerance (Cass et al., 1997), visual vertigo, mal de débarquement syndrome (MdDS), and room tilt illusion are additionally recognized symptoms of VM (Tomanovic and Bergenius, 2010). VM accounts for 10–20% or more subjects viewed in specialist neuro-otology clinics (Geser and also Straumann, 2012), has a female preponderance, and also deserve to occur at any type of age. Patients may report headaches in at an early stage youth and also vertigo in later on years. A family history implying an autosomal-dominant transmission might be apparent in some patients.

Neuro-otologic examination in between spells reveal normal functioning. Throughout an episode, however, spontaneous horizontal, vertical upbeating or downbeating or torsional nystagmus or isolated positional nystagmus have actually been reported (von Brevern et al., 2005). Since both main and peripheral nystagmus have been demonstrated in VM, it is assumed that migraine deserve to affect the vestibular system at many kind of different sites.

The pathophysiology underlying an episode of VM has actually been the subject of many kind of hypotheses. The spanalysis depression of a migraine aura, which may impact the brainstem or multisensory cortical areas processing vestibular indevelopment, might produce main vertigo. Spasm of the internal auditory artery could result in peripheral vertigo (Baloh, 1997). Trigeminovascular reflex-mediated vasodilatation of cranial and inner-ear vessels through plasma extravasation in the inner ear and meninges (Koo and Balaban, 2006) or the dysfeature of an ion channel expressed in the inner ear (Dieterich et al., 2016) are some proposed mechanisms. Vestibular function tests and also audiometry are often normal in VM (Fig. 25.3A). The objective of testing is to exclude other causes of episodic vertigo even more generally connected through vestibular loss, such as Ménière's illness, fairly than prove VM.



Fig. 25.3. Episodic spontaneous vertigo. (A) Vestibular migraine: typical audiovestibular test results are within normal limits, bilaterally. (B) Ménière's condition (right ear): typical audiovestibular test outcomes display right-sided abnormalities including elevated pure-tone audiogram thresholds, decreased cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) amplitude, and also a weak caloric response. The caloric test and also cVEMPs are beneficial once separating vestibular migraine from Ménière's condition. AC, air-conducted; BC, bone-conducted; dB HL, decibels hearing level; SCC, semicircular canal; SPV, slow-phase velocity (°/s); SVH, subjective visual horizontal; VEMP, vestibular evoked myogenic potential; VHIT, video head impulse test. Astedangers and arrows indicate abnormal findings. Red lines suggest right-sided results; blue lines show left-sided results.

The sensory hyperexcitcapability leads patients to look for dark quiet atmospheres and protect against busy visually compelling cases such as a supermarket or crowded square. These attributes make VM somewhat difficult to sepaprice from tension and also psychophysical vertigo. Due to the fact that head movement-related dizziness is widespread in VM, patients protect against sudden movements, walking, and physical activities that cause their symptoms.

Migraineurs, once compared via controls, show greater body guide when vision is deprived (Ishizaki et al., 2002). Akdal et al. (2012) examined controls and also migraineurs 12 months acomponent and also reported a little yet significant boost in whole-body sway in the migraineurs via vision deprived on a foam mat. Some steps of the limits-of-stcapability test (reactivity time and also maximal excursion) were considerably worse as soon as tested 12 months acomponent. They hypothesized that migraineurs may suffer gradual decline in standing balance and queried if balance rehabilitation might readjust these patterns (Akdal et al., 2012). Migraineurs who see visual stimuli through illusory movement demonstrate an increase in body guide straight after expocertain and also even 30 secs later on (Celebisoy et al., 2008; Imaizumi et al., 2015). In interictal VM, static posturography shows enhanced persuade velocity once vision is deprived (Ishizaki et al., 2002) or when the platdevelop is disturbed, implying changed, if not abnormal, vestibulospinal attribute in migraine.

Many kind of patients with VM may explain the sensation of standing on a moving platform, strikingly similar to the reports of symptoms in MdDS (von Brevern and also Lempert, 2016), which is identified by an extensive rocking sensation that starts practically immediately after extfinished expocertain to activity such as a long-haul trip or sea trip. Migraine is even more common in MdDS than in controls. About a 3rd of patients via MdDS subsequently build recurrent spontaneous episodes after the initial occasion (Cha et al., 2008). Patients via MdDS who also had actually migraine demonstrated a greater rate of such unprovoked recurrences (73%) than nonmigraineurs (22%).

Treatment of VM calls for explanation of the diagnosis and also college of measures to minimize triggering of migraine: enough sleep, hydration, avoidance of foods items well-known to provoke headaches or dizziness in each individual, and also exercise. Physical therapies that target head movement intolerance and also cognitive behavioral treatment aimed at minimizing the threat applied by unpleasant vestibular symptoms are as important as pharmacotherapy. Vestibulo-ocular and also cervico-ocular reflex training, large-amplitude head and also trunk movements, and ambulation exercises provided in VM sufferers brought about substantial improvements in DHI, Activity Specific Balance Confidence scale and also posturography measures (Whitney et al., 2000; Gottshall et al., 2005).

Extrapolating from experiences treating migraine headaches, migraine-preventative therapies are offered to regulate the frequency and also severity of episodic vestibular symptoms in VM. Beta-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline and also doxepin, anticonvulsants such as topiramate and also sodium valproate are provided to alleviate unpleasant interval symptoms (Salmito et al., 2017). Management of MdDS via standard VM therapies is thshould enhance high quality of life and also alleviate symptoms as soon as compared with physical therapies alone (Ghavami et al., 2017).

Michael Strupp, ... Thomas Brandt, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 2010


Vestibular migraine is a chameleon among the episodic vertigo syndromes because substantial variation characterizes its clinical manifestation. The strikes may last from secs to days. About one-3rd of patients presents with monosymptomatic attacks of vertigo or dizziness without headache or various other migrainous symptoms. During strikes most patients show spontaneous or positional nystagmus and also in the attack‐free interval minor ocular motor and vestibular deficits. Women are considerably even more frequently affected than males. Symptoms might start at any type of time in life, via the greatest prevalence in young adults and also between the ages of 60 and 70. Over the last 10 years vestibular migraine has advanced right into a medical entity in dizziness units. It is the most common cause of spontaneous represent episodic vertigo and accounts for approximately 10% of patients via vertigo and dizziness. Its broad spectrum poses a diagnostic problem of how to ascendancy out Menière's illness or vestibular paroxysmia. Vestibular migraine should be consisted of in the International Headache Group of Headache Disorders (ICHD) as a subcategory of migraine. It should, however, be retained separate and also distinct from basilar-kind migraine and also benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood. We like the term “vestibular migraine” to “migrainous vertigo,” because the last might likewise refer to assorted vestibular and non-vestibular symptoms. Antimigrainous medication to treat the single assault and also to proccasion recurring strikes shows up to be effective, yet the published proof is weak. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled research is required to evaluate clinical therapy of this problem.

Matthew B. Lovern, in Hormones and Remanufacturing of Vertebrates: Reptiles, 2011 Chamaeleonidae

Despite the charismatic nature of chameleons and also the intense popularity of a number of species in zoos and the pet profession, nothing yet is recognized about hormonal impacts on remanufacturing in this team of about 180 species. The methods for interesting hormone–reproduction relationships seem compelling given that, throughout species, tbelow is considerable diversity in the level of sexual dimorphism and also reproductive lifeexpectancy (e.g., Pianka & Vitt, 2003; Karsten et al., 2008). Further, in current years reabundant actions has actually been well-studied for both males and females of a number of species (e.g., the Madagashave the right to chameleons Furcifer labordi and Furcifer verrucosus (Karsten, Andriamandimbiarisoa, Fox, & Raxworthy, 2009) and also the veiled chameleons, Chamaeleo calyptratus (Kelso & Verrell, 2002)), revealing dramatic and also in some situations sex-atypical behaviors for lizards such as high sexual aggression in females (dwarf chameleons, Bradypodion pumilum (Stuart-Fox & Whiting, 2005)) and also energetic mate guarding by males of freshly mated females in a serially polygynous system (common chameleons, Chameleo chamaeleon (Cuadracarry out, 2000; 2001)). Most chameleons are oviparous although a couple of offer live birth; throughout oviparous species, clutch sizes have the right to differ significantly, from 2–4 eggs in smaller species such as leaf chameleons of the genus Brookesia to 40 or more in species such as C. calyptratus (Pianka & Vitt, 2003; Andrews, 2008). Finally, our understanding of how to keep chameleons successfully in bondage has actually enhanced significantly (e.g., Ferguchild et al., 1996; Ferguchild, Gehrmann, Chen, Dierenfeld, & Holick, 2002; Andrews, 2008; Karsten, Fergukid, Chen, & Holick, 2009) making them increasingly amallow to laboratory study also.

STEPHEN L. BARTEN, in Reptile Medicine and also Surgery (Second Edition), 2006


Pseudomonas spp. bacteria flourish swiftly in water bowls, so bowls have to be adjusted and disinfected or wamelted in hot soapy water daily.39

Arbogenuine species, such as Old World Chameleons, geckos, and also anoles, only lap dew from leaves. These species need a everyday misting of the cage or a drip system. A straightforward drip mechanism can be made via old IV tubing puburned through the bottom of a water-filled plastic milk bottle. The IV set is adjusted to allow a secure drip over broad leaves in the cage, and also a bowl is placed on the cage floor to catch the excess. A single pinhole in the bottom of a milk jug gives a less complicated yet less adjusteady drip mechanism. Conversely, an aquarium pump might be connected to a large pan of water so that water is pumped up through tubing and permitted to drip over leaves and also then circulation earlier into the pan. Commercial misters and also drip systems are obtainable from reptile companies.

Tap water usually is enough, however bottled water could be used wright here the tap water quality is in question. Aging the water or dechlorination is not necessary.

Humidity is a vital however frequently overlooked element.38,40 In basic, jungle species require greater humidity and desert species lower humidity. Most species do well at humidity levels of 50% to 70%.38 High humidity and temperature deserve to bring about rapid growth of bacteria and mold in the cage, however this can be prevented via sufficient ventilation.

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Correct ambient humidity is crucial to ensure appropriate ecdysis in winter once humidity in the average residence deserve to gain as low as 10%. Low humidity have the right to be corrected by placing damp sponges in the hide boxes or by using a so-called humidity box. This is made by cutting an access hole in the side or top of a plastic storage container and also partially filling it through damp but not soaked sphagnum moss. Frequent spraying through a plant mister is additionally reliable but is even more labor intensive. Commercial misting machines for reptile cperiods are obtainable. Room humidifiers or vaporizers might be even more effective for regulating humidity in collections via many cperiods.