The joints in our hand are comprised of cartilage surfaces that cap the bones. Cartilage is a smooth surface that permits for gliding. Once cartilage is healthy, over there is a cushioning effect of the cartilage that absorbs and evens the end the forces throughout the joint.

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The joints in our hands are comprised of cartilage surfaces the cap the bones. Cartilage is a smooth surface that allows for gliding. As soon as cartilage is healthy, over there is a cushioning impact of the cartilage that absorbs and also evens the end the forces across the joint. Our joints typically have a capsule that tough, however flexible, fibrous tissue that helps host the joints together and an inner lining of synovium. The synovium has multiple attributes including to help carry out fluid because that lubrication the the joint. The difficult fibrous tissue is regularly what is injured as soon as you have actually a sprain the a joint.When stating hand joints, we describe the palmar or volar surface ar (the palm side), the dorsal surface ar (the ago of the hand), the radial side (toward the thumb), and the ulnar side (toward the little finger).

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Finger Joints

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Thumb

Interphalangeal share (IP)The ignorance digit has only 2 phalanges (bones) so it only has actually one joint. The thumb interphalangeal (IP) joint is similar to the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint in the fingers. The IP share in thumb is located at the reminder of the finger just prior to the fingernail starts. The terminal extensor tendon in the thumb originates from the extensor pollicis longus muscle. The radial and also ulnar collateral ligaments are important to provide stability of the fingertip throughout pinching.Metacarpophalangeal share (MP)The MP joint is whereby the hand bone, dubbed the metacarpal, meets the finger bones, dubbed the phalanges. A solitary finger bone is referred to as a phalanx. MP joints are crucial for both strength grip and also pinch activities; they room where the fingers move in relationship to the hand. The MP share primarily allows you come bend and also extend the thumb. The ulnar collateral ligament of the ignorance MP share is necessary to stabilize the thumb during most pinch activities and is commonly injured.Carpometacarpal joint (CMC)The ignorance CMC joint has the most flexibility of motion. The ignorance metacarpal can bend and also extend the thumb, relocate the ignorance away from and toward the hand, and also spin the ignorance on the trapezium. Two an extremely important ligaments space the dorsoradial and also the volar beak ligaments. The abductor pollicis longus and brevis aid move the thumb away from the hand. The adductor pollicis helps move the thumb towards the hand. The ignorance CMC joint is among the most common locations in the hand and wrist to construct arthritis. Surgical procedure for arthritis that the joint often consists of removal of the trapezium or resurfacing of the joint. Common injuries come this joint encompass a Bennett’s fracture and also a Rolando’s fracture.Learn around thumb arthritis.

Index Finger

Distal Interphalangeal joint (DIP)The DIP share in the finger is situated at the pointer of the finger, just before the finger nail starts. Typical problems in ~ this joint encompass Mallet Finger, Jersey Finger, arthritis, mucous cysts, and also fractures. The index finger is an ext likely to develop arthritis indigenous the pinch force that wake up throughout one’s life.Proximal Interphalangeal share (PIP Joint)The PIP joint is the first joint that the finger and also is located between the first two skeletal of the finger. The PIP joint can bend and also extend the finger. Itbecomes stiff easily after injury. Typical injuries incorporate sprains, fractures, dislocations, arthritis, and extensor tendon ruptures (leads to Boutonnière deformity), and hyperextension (Swan neck).Metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP joint)The MP share is wherein the hand bone referred to as the metacarpal meets the finger bones called the phalanges. A single hand bone is called a phalanx. MP joints are essential for both strength grip and pinch activities; they space where the fingers relocate with respect come the hand. The MP joints permits you to bend and also flex her fingers, spread your fingers, and also bring the fingers together. You have the right to spread her fingers much more more conveniently when they room straightened quite than bent since the collateral ligaments are loosened when the finger is extended. Common problems at the MCP joint incorporate arthritis and collateral ligament injuries.Carpometacarpal joint (CMC Joint)The index CMC share has small motion; this provides a more rigid and also stable radial obelisk to the hand. Injuries and also problems with this joint space uncommon. Occasionally, joint pain can be led to by a CMC boss.

Middle Finger

Distal Interphalangeal share (DIP Joint)

The DIP share in the finger is located at the guideline of the finger, just prior to the finger nail starts. Typical problems at this joint encompass Mallet Finger, Jersey Finger, arthritis, mucous cysts, and fractures.

Proximal Interphalangeal joint (PIP Joint)The PIP joint is the an initial joint the the finger and is located in between the an initial two skeleton of the finger. The PIP joint can bend and extend the finger.It i do not care stiff easily after injury and has very limited side to next motion.Common injuries encompass sprains, fractures, dislocations, arthritis, extensor tendon ruptures (leads to Boutonnière deformity), and also hyperextension (Swan neck).Metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP Joint)The MP share is where the hand bone referred to as the metacarpal meets the finger bones called the phalanges. A single hand bone is called a phalanx. MP joints are essential for both strength grip and pinch activities; they space where the fingers move with respect come the hand. The MP joints allows you to bend and also flex her fingers, spread out your fingers, and bring the finger together. You deserve to spread her fingers more more quickly when they room straightened fairly than bent since the collateral ligaments are loosened when the finger is extended.

Common troubles at the MCP joint encompass arthritis and collateral ligament injuries.The middle finger MCP share is the most common finger (it can happen to any type of finger) to have actually a radial sagittal band injury. This results in the extensor tendon snapping come the pinky next of the hand.Carpometacarpal joint (CMC Joint)The middle finger CMC share has little motion. Injuries and also problems with this joint are uncommon. Occasionally, joint pain deserve to be resulted in by a CMC boss.

Ring Finger

Distal Interphalangeal joint (DIP Joint)The DIP joint in the finger is situated at the tip of the finger, just before the fingernail starts. Usual problems at this joint includeMallet Finger, Jersey Finger, arthritis, mucous cysts, and also fractures.Proximal Interphalangeal joint (PIP Joint)The PIP share is the an initial joint the the finger and is locatedbetween the an initial two skeleton of the finger. The PIP joint can bend and also extend the finger.It i do not care stiff conveniently after injury and has very limited side to side motion.Common injuries include sprains, fractures, dislocations, arthritis, extensor tendon ruptures (leads toBoutonnière deformity), and also hyperextension (Swan neck).Metacarpophalangeal share (MCP Joint)The MP share is wherein the hand bone, dubbed the metacarpal, meets the finger bones dubbed the phalanges. A solitary hand bone is called a phalanx. MP joints are important for both power grip and pinch activities and space where the fingers relocate with respect to the hand. The MP joints permits you come bend and also flex your fingers, spread your fingers, and bring the fingers together. You deserve to spread her fingers more more easily when they room straightened quite than bent due to the fact that the collateral ligaments are loose when the finger is extended.Common problems at the MCP joint consists of arthritis and collateral ligament injuries.Carpometacarpal joint (CMC Joint)

The ring finger CMC joint has actually much much more motion 보다 the table of contents or middle fingers. This permits the hand to readjust its shape and adapt to grasping objects of different size and shape. Since this share is much more mobile, the is more common to have actually a fracture or dislocation of this joint. CMC bossing go not commonly occur at this joint.

Small Finger

Distal Interphalangeal share (DIP Joint)The DIP joint in the finger is located at the tip of the finger just before the fingernail starts. Usual problems at this share includeMallet Finger, Jersey Finger, arthritis, mucous cysts, and also fractures.Proximal Interphalangeal joint (PIP Joint)The PIP share is the very first joint that the finger and is locatedbetween the an initial two skeleton of the finger. The PIP joint have the right to bend and extend the finger.It i do not care stiff quickly after injury.Common injuries encompass sprains, fractures, dislocations, arthritis, extensor tendon ruptures (leads toBoutonnière deformity), and hyperextension (Swan neck).Metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP Joint)The MP joint is where the hand bone called, the metacarpal, meets the finger bones called the phalanges. A single hand bone is called a phalanx. MP joints are essential for both power grip and pinch activities and room where the fingers move with respect to the hand. The MP joints allows you to bend and flex your fingers, spread out your fingers, and bring the finger together. You can spread your fingers much more more easily when they space straightened fairly than bent because the collateral ligaments are loose when the finger is extended.Common troubles at the MCP joint consists of arthritis and collateral ligament injuries.Carpometacarpal joint (CMC Joint)

The small finger CMC joint has the most motion of any kind of finger joint, with the exception of the thumb. This makes the hand more flexible. This permits the hand to change its shape and also adapt come grasping objects of different size and also shape. Because this joint is much more mobile that is an ext common to have actually a fracture or dislocation, specifically when friend hit a difficult object. CMC bossing is a problem that walk not commonly occur in ~ this joint.

Wrist Joints

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Radiocarpal Joint

The radiocarpal joint consists of the radius, one of the forearm bones, and also the an initial row that wrist skeleton consisting the the scaphoid, lunate, and also triquetrum. Over there is also a fourth bone in the very first row of wrist bones called the pisiform, but it does not affix to either the radius or ulna. Wrist fractures that involve the joint surface are usual wrist injuries. One of the most usual ligaments associated in a wrist sprain is the scapholunate ligament.

Ulnocarpal Joint

The ulnocarpal joint includes the ulna, among the forearm bones, as well as the lunate and also triquetrum. Ulnocarpal injuries are typical with sprains. A broken wrist (fracture) the collapses and tilts can reason the ulna come be longer than the radius, which causes extra stress and also pain, even after the fracture heals and stops hurtig. Some world who room born with, or develop, one ulna the is much longer than the radius have the right to have ache or also have ulnocarpal abutment (impaction) syndrome. A person with a much shorter ulna 보다 radius can likewise have a greater chance of emerging Kienbock’s disease.

Distal radioulnar

The distal radioulnar share is in ~ the wrist where the 2 forearm bones meet. Distal radioulnar joint instability or pain deserve to sometimes it is in a difficult problem come treat.

Scaphotrapeziotrapezoid joint (STT)

The scaphotrapeziotrapezoid joint is in ~ the basic of the ignorance in the wrist. It is comprised of 3 wrist bones, the scaphoid, the trapezium, and also the trapezoid. The scaphoid rotates in ~ this joint as you relocate the wrist. This share can come to be arthritic. Treatment of arthritis in this joint can encompass removal the the scaphoid, removal of the trapezium and part of the trapezoid, or arthrodesis (also well-known as fusion).

Elbow Joints

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Ulnohumeral joint

The ulnohumeral joint is formed by the coming with each other of the humerus and also ulna bones. This joint is responsible because that bending and extending the elbow. Ulnohumeral arthritis can reason pain and also make it complicated to bend and also straighten the elbow. This can make the painful and an overwhelming to the acquire the hand come the mouth, wash hair, or hold a phone call to her ear.

Radiocapitellar

The radiocapitellar share is developed by the coming together of the radius and the capitellum, which is a component of the humerus. Radiocapitellar difficulties often lead to a clicking sound and pain once rotating the elbow.

Proximal radioulnar

Pronation and supination occur at this joint, i beg your pardon is the plot of rotating her palms to confront upward and downward. Radial head fractures frequently disrupt the near fit between the 2 bones in ~ the proximal radioulnar joint, bring about pain and loss of motion.

Shoulder Joints

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Glenohumeral

The glenohumeral joint is the coming with each other of the top arm bone, the humerus, and also a portion of the shoulder blade called the glenoid. The glenoid is a shallow cup that connects come the humerus. The shoulder has actually a good deal that motion consisting of bending and straightening, moving away native the next of the body, relocating toward the body, and also circumduction (a spinning type of motion). Usual problems v this joint include stiffness, dislocation, labral tears, bursitis, rotator cuff tears, lengthy head of biceps tendonitis or tears, subacromial impingement, proximal humeral fractures, and also arthritis.

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Acromioclavicular (AC)

The AC joint is a smaller sized joint connected with the shoulder. The acromium is part of the scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (also called the collarbone). The AC joint is where the scapula and clavicle come together. There room three significant ligaments, the acro-mioclavicular, coracoacromial, coracoclavicular. This joint is connected with raising and also lowering the arm and moving the arm forward and also backward. One AC separation is a usual injury of this share which wake up from a fall or a direct blow to the shoulder. Countless shoulder separations room treated there is no surgery, however some might require surgical treatment to reconstruct the coracoacromial or coracoclavicular ligaments. Osteoarthritis is also common and also can it is in treated occasionally with surgery.

Sternoclavicular share (SC)

The sternoclavicular joint is the junction that the sternum (breastbone) and clavicle (collarbone). There is an articular bowl of fibrocartilage within the joint. The activity of this share permits the clavicle to move up and also down and also front come back. There room no tendons that attach to this joint area. A posterior (back) SC share dislocation deserve to be a serious injury and also puts an important structures at threat such as the heart, aorta, premium vena cava, esophagus, and trachea. Anterior (front) dislocations can additionally occur and are regularly somewhat less serious, but can reason pain and clicking.