Sound have the right to travel through any type of medium, yet it can not travel through a vacuum. There is no sound in outer space.

You are watching: The height of a sound wave is called

Sound is a variation in pressure. A region of boosted pressure top top a sound wave is referred to as a compression (or condensation). A an ar of lessened pressure top top a sound tide is dubbed a rarefaction (or dilation).

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The sources of sound

vibrating solidsrapid expansion or compression (explosions and also implosions)Smooth (laminar) air flow approximately blunt obstacles may result in the formation of vortices (the many of vortex) the snap off or melted with a characteristics frequency. This process is referred to as vortex shedding and is another method by which sound waves space formed. This is just how a whistle or flute to produce sound. Also the aeolian harp effect of singing power lines and fluttering venetian blinds.

What room the different characteristics of a wave? What room the things that have the right to be measured around waves? Amplitude, frequency (and period), wavelength, speed, and maybe phase. Resolve each one in the order.

### amplitude, intensity, loudness, volume

Amplitude goes v intensity, loudness, or volume. That"s the basic idea. The details go in a separate section.

Unlike our ears and also hydrophones, fish ears don"t detect sound pressure, i beg your pardon is the compression of molecules. Instead, they perceive something dubbed particle motion, the small back-and-forth activities of corpuscle in response to sound waves.

### speed of sound

The rate of sound counts upon the form of medium and its state. The is generally influenced by 2 things: elasticity and also inertia. This is the Newton-Laplace equation. Laplace added the γ (gamma) correction factor for right gases.

solids

 v=√ E ρ
 E= Young"smodulus ρ= density

fluids

 v=√ K ρ
 K= bulkmodulus ρ= density

ideal gases

 v=√ K =√ γP =√ γRT =√ γkT ρ ρ M m
 K= bulkmodulus γ= cP/cV specificheatratio P= absolute pressure ρ= density T= absolutetemperature R= gas constant M= molar mass k= Boltzmannconstant m= molecular mass

Acoustic Thermometry of ocean Climates (ATOC)

in water, sounds below 1 kHz travel lot farther than greater frequencies"shipping noise is loudest in the 30 come 200 Hz variety ""blue and fin wales room the loudest sound in the 17 to 30 Hz range""In pre-industrial times, the short frequency range of 15 to 300 Hz in which most of the baleen whales sing was the quietest part of the sound spectrum, nestled in between the subsonic ramblings that earthquakes and also the greater pitched rattle the wind, waves and rain." Bob Holmes. "Noises Off." brand-new Scientist. 1 in march 1997: 30–33.

echoes

scraps

As with any kind of wave the rate of sound counts on the medium in which that is propagating.Sound typically travels faster in solids and liquids than in gases.The rate of sound is much faster in products that have some stiffness like steel and also slower in softer materials like rubber.Factors affect the rate of sound in air.The rate of sound in air is approximately 345m/s (about 1,250kph, 770mph, 1,100ft/s).The speed of sound in waiting is nearly the same for all frequencies and amplitudes.It boosts with temperature.Determining the street to a lightning bolt: Sound waves take roughly 5seconds to travel 1mile. Utilizing this information, that is possible to measure up one"s street from a lightning bolt. Start counting instantly after you see the flash. Every five seconds count is roughly equivalent to one mile that distance.
solidsv(m/s)
aluminum6,420
beryllium12,890
brass4,700
brick3,650
copper4,760
cork500
glass, crown5,100
glass, flint3,980
glass, pyrex5,640
gold3,240
granite5,950
iron5,950
lucite2,680
marble3,810
rubber, butyl1,830
rubber, vulcanized54
silver3,650
steel, mild5,960
steel, stainless5,790
titanium6,070
wood, ash4,670
wood, elm4,120
wood, maple4,110
wood, oak3,850
liquidsv(m/s)
alcohol, ethyl1,207
alcohol, methyl1,103
mercury1,450
water, distilled1,497
water, sea1,531
gases (STP)v(m/s)
air, 000°C331
air, 020°C343
argon319
carbon dioxide259
helium965
hydrogen (H2)1,284
neon435
nitrogen334
nitrous oxide263
oxygen (O2)316
water vapor, 134°C494
biological materialsv(m/s)
soft tissues1,540

### frequency, pitch, tone

The frequency of a sound tide is dubbed it pitch. High frequency sound are said to it is in "high pitched" or simply "high"; low frequency sound are said to be "low pitched" or simply "low".

Frequency that selected soundsf(Hz)device, event, phenomenon, process
0.1–2.0×1012SASER (sound laser)
01–20×106medical ultrasound
25–80×103bat sonar clicks
40–50×103ultrasonic cleaning
32.768×103quartz time crystal, C11 scientific scale (215Hz)
18–20×103upper limit of person hearing
4–5×103field cricket (Teleogryllus oceanicus)
2.2–2.8×103clapping
2–5×103maximum sensitivity that the person hear
4,186highest note on a modern piano (C8)
0,300–3,000voice frequency (VF), vital for understanding speech
2,048C7 scientific scale, highest possible note the a soprano singer
440A4 typical tuning frequency (ISO16), TV check pattern tone
435A4 global pitch (diapason normal)
422A4 classic pitch
256C4 scientific scale (28Hz), typical basic frequency because that female vocal cords
128C3 scientific range (27Hz), typical an essential frequency for male vocal cords
64C2 scientific range (26Hz), lowest note of a base singer
90ruby-throated hummingbird in flight
60alternating present hum (US and also Japan)
50alternating current hum (Europe)
27.5lowest keep in mind on a contemporary piano (A0)
17–30blue and also fin wales are the loudest marine sounds in this range
08–20lower border of human being hearing
2C−3 scientific scale (21Hz)
1C−4 scientific range (20Hz)

### human hearing and also speech

Humans are generally qualified of hearing sounds between 20Hz and also 20kHz (although i can"t hear sounds above 13kHz). Sounds v frequencies above the selection of human being hearing are referred to as ultrasound. Sounds with frequencies listed below the range of person hearing are dubbed infrasound.

Typical sounds developed by person speech have frequencies ~ above the order of 100 to 1,000Hz.The height sensitivity of human hearing is roughly 4000Hz.locating the resource of soundInteraural Time difference (ITD)Interaural Phase difference (IPD) Phase differences are one method we localize sounds. Only reliable for wavelengths better than 2 head diameters (ear-to-ear distances).Interaural Level difference (ILD) Sound waves diffract conveniently at wavelengths larger than the diameter that the human being head (around 500Hz wavelength amounts to 69cm). At higher frequencies the head casts a "shadow". Sounds in one ear will certainly be louder 보다 the other.The person ear can identify some…1400 various pitchesthree (four?) vocal registers(whistle register?)falsettomodal — the usual speaking registervocal fry — the lowest of the 3 vocal registers

More in the next section.

infrasound

avalanches: location, depth, durationmeteors: altitude, direction, type, size, locationocean waves: storms in ~ sea, magnitude, spectrasevere weather: location, intensitytornadoes: detection, location, warning, core radius, funnel shape, precursorsturbulence: plane avoidance, altitude, strength, extentearthquakes: precursors, seismic-acoustic couplingvolcanoes: location, intensityElephants, whales, hippos, rhinoceros, giraffe, okapi, and alligator are simply a few examples of animals that produce infrasound.Some migratory birds are able come hear the infrasonic sounds produced when ocean waves break. This enables them come orient themselves through coastlines.An elephant is qualified of listening sound tide well below our the human hearing limitation (approximately 30 Hertz). Typically, one elephant"s countless different rumbles will certainly span in between 14 and 35 Hertz. The far reaching usage of high press infrasound opens up the elephant"s spatial endure far beyond our limited capabilities.Silent Thunder, Katy Payne

ultrasound

animal echolocationmicrochiropterans a.k.a. Microbats: carnivorous bats (not
fruit bats or flying foxes)cetaceans: dolphins, porpoises, orcas, whalestwo bird species: swiftlets and oilbirdssome visually impaired humans have learned this techniquesonar (an acronym for sound navigation and ranging) includingbathymetryecho soundingfish findersmedical ultrasonography (the images created are called sonograms).

See more: Why Can Catfish Survive In Low Oxygen Conditions, Low Oxygen Levels: Do Fish Cope Or Do They Choke

Typical parameters used in medical ultrasoundSource:tasiilaq.netTodayfrequency(MHz)power(W)intensity(W/cm2)pulseduration
imaging, echo1–200.051.750.2–1μs
imaging, doppler1–200.1515.70.3–10μs
physio­therapy0.5–3

fish–actinopterygiifrequency range(Hz)
goldfishCarassius auratus52,000m
tunaThunnus …501,1001
catfish… …504,0001
amphibians–amphibiafrequency range(Hz)
tree frog… …504,0001
bullfrogLithobates catesbeianus1002,5002
cave salamanderProteus anguinus1010,000i
reptiles–reptilia, sauropsidafrequency range(Hz)
red-eared sliderTrachemys scripta elegans688402
spectacled caimanCaiman crocodilus206,000a
birds–avesfrequency range(Hz)
mallard duckAnus platyrhynchus3008,000b
pigeonColumba livia?5,8002
chickenGallus gallus1252,0001
canarySerinus canaria2508,0001
cockatielNymphicus hollandicus2508,0001
parakeetMelopsittacus undulatus2008,5001
penguinSpheniscus demersus10015,000c
owl… …20012,0001
mammals–mammaliafrequency range(Hz)
cattleBos taurus2335,0001, k
sheepOvis aries10030,0001
pigSus scrofa domestica4545,0002
dogCanis lupus familiaris6745,0001, 2
catFelis silvestris catus4564,0001, 4
ferretMustela putorius furo1644,0001
raccoonProcyon lotor10040,0001
blue whaleBalaenoptera musculus512,000d
humpback whaleMegaptera novaeangliae3028,0004
Risso"s dolphinGrampus griseus8,000100,000j
beluga whaleDelphinapterus leucas1,000123,0001
Atlantic bottlenose dolphinTursiops truncatus75150,0001, 4
greater horseshoe batRhinolophus ferrumequinum2,000110,0001, 4
Jamaican fruit batArtibeus jamaicensis2,800131,000e
northern quollDasyurus hallucatus50040,000f
opossum… …50064,0001
hedgehog… …25045,0001
rabbit… …36042,0001
horseEquus caballus5533,5001, k, l
Philippine tarsierTarsius syrichta?91,000o
Japanese macaqueMacaca fuscata2834,5002
old civilization monkeys… …6040,000g
humanHomo sapiens3117,6002
Asian elephantElephas maximus1612,0001
guinea pigCavia porcellus5450,0001, 2
chinchillaChinchilla lanigera9022,8001
hamsterMesocricetus auratus8045,0002
ratRattus …50064,0002
mouseMus …2,30085,5002
gerbilMeriones unguiculatus10060,0001
manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris40046,000h
insects–insectafrequency range(Hz)
noctuid moth… …1,000240,0003
grasshopper… …10050,0003
mollusks–molluscafrequency range(Hz)
Pacific oysterMagallana gigas101,000n
 Major sources:

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