The legless condition that is observed in several groups of extant reptiles is the result ofA) their common ancestor having been legless.B) a shared adaptation to an arboreal (living in trees) lifestyle.C) several instances of the legless condition arising independently of each other.D) individual lizards adapting to a fossorial (living in burrows) lifestyle during theirlifetimes.

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The scientific discipline concerned with naming organisms is called A) taxonomy.B) cladistics.C) binomial nomenclature. D) systematics.E) phylocode
The various taxonomic levels (viz, genera, classes, etc.) of the hierarchical classification system differ from each other on the basis ofA) how widely the organisms assigned to each are distributed throughout the environment.B) the body sizes of the organisms assigned to each.C) their inclusiveness.D) the relative genome sizes of the organisms assigned to each.E) morphological characters that are applicable to all organisms.
A phylogenetic tree that is ʺrootedʺ is oneA) that extends back to the origin of life on Earth.B) at whose base is located the common ancestor of all taxa depicted on that tree.C) that illustrates the rampant gene swapping that occurred early in lifeʹs history.D) that indicates our uncertainty about the evolutionary relationships of the taxadepicted on the tree.E) with very few branch points.
The correct sequence, from the most to the least comprehensive, of the taxonomic levels listed here isA) family, phylum, class, kingdom, order, species, and genus. B) kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. C) kingdom, phylum, order, class, family, genus, and species. D) phylum, kingdom, order, class, species, family, and genus. E) phylum, family, class, order, kingdom, genus, and species.
The common housefly belongs to all of the following taxa. Assuming you had access to textbooks or other scientific literature, knowing which of the following should provide you with the most specific information about the common housefly?A) order DipteraB) family MuscidaeC) genus Musca D) class HexapodaE) phylum Arthropoda
If organisms A, B, and C belong to the same class but to different orders and if organisms D, E, and F belong to the same order but to different families, which of the following pairs of organisms would be expected to show the greatest degree of structural homology?A) A and B B) A and C C) B and DD) C and F E) D and F
Darwin analogized the effects of evolution as the above-ground portion of a many-branched tree, with extant species being the tips of the twigs. The common ancestor of two species is most analogous to which anatomical tree part?A) a single twig that gets longer with time B) a node where two twigs divergeC) a twig that branches with time D) the trunkE) neighboring twigs attached to the same stem
Dozens of potato varieties exist, differing from each other in potato-tuber size, skin color, flesh color, and shape. One might construct a classification of potatoes based on these morphological traits. Which of these criticisms of such a classification scheme is most likely to come from an adherent of the phylocode method of classification?A) Flesh color, rather than skin color, is a valid trait to use for classification because it is less susceptible to change with the age of the tuber.B) Flower color is a better classification criterion, because below-ground tubers can be influenced by minerals in the soil as much as by their genes.C) A more useful classification would codify potatoes based on the texture and flavor of their flesh, because this is what humans are concerned with.D) The most accurate phylogenetic code is that of Linnaeus. Classify potatoes based on Linnaean principles; not according to their color.E) The only biologically valid classification of potato varieties is one that accurately reflects their genetic and evolutionary relatedness.
The best classification system is that which most closely A) unites organisms that possess similar morphologies.B) conforms to traditional, Linnaean taxonomic practices.C) reflects evolutionary history.D) corroborates the classification scheme in use at the time of Charles Darwin.E) reflects the basic separation of prokaryotes from eukaryotes.
Which of the following pairs are the best examples of homologous structures? A) bat wing and human handB) owl wing and hornet wingC) porcupine quill and cactus spine D) bat forelimb and bird wingE) Australian mole and North American mole
Some molecular data place the giant panda in the bear family (Ursidae) but place the lesser panda in the raccoon family (Procyonidae). Consequently, the morphological similarities of these two species are probably due toA) inheritance of acquired characteristics. B) sexual selection.C) inheritance of shared derived characters. D) possession of analogous structures.E) possession of shared primitive characters.
In angiosperm plants, flower morphology can be very intricate. If a tree, such as a New Mexico locust, has flowers that share many morphological intricacies with flowers of the sweet pea vine, then the most likely explanation for these floral similarities is the same general explanation for the similarities between theA) dorsal fins of sharks and of dolphins.B) reduced eyes of Australian moles and North American moles.C) scales on moth wings and the scales of fish skin.D) cranial bones of humans and those of chimpanzees.E) adaptations for flight in birds and adaptations for flight in bats.
The common ancestors of birds and mammals were very early (stem) reptiles, which almost certainly possessed 3-chambered hearts (2 atria, 1 ventricle). Birds and mammals, however, are alike in having 4-chambered hearts (2 atria, 2 ventricles). The 4-chambered hearts of birds and mammals are best described asA) structural homologies. B) vestiges.C) homoplasies.D) the result of shared ancestry.E) molecular homologies.
Generally, within a lineage, the largest number of shared derived characters should be found among two organisms that are members of the sameA) kingdom. B) class.C) domain. D) family.E) order.
Which of the following is not true of all horizontally oriented phylogenetic trees, where time advances to the right?A) Each branch point represents a point in absolute time.B) Organisms represented at the base of such trees are ancestral to those represented athigher levels.C) The more branch points that occur between two taxa, the more divergent their DNAsequences should be.D) The common ancestor represented by the rightmost branch point existed morerecently in time than the common ancestors represented at branch points located tothe left.E) The more branch points there are, the more taxa are likely to be represented.
Shared derived characters are most likely to be found in taxa that are A) paraphyletic.B) polyphyletic. C) monophyletic.
A taxon, all of whose members have the same common ancestor, is A) paraphyletic.B) polyphyletic. C) monophyletic.
The term that is most appropriately associated with clade is A) paraphyletic.B) polyphyletic. C) monophyletic.
If birds are excluded from the class Reptilia, the term that consequently describes the class Reptilia isA) paraphyletic. B) polyphyletic. C) monophyletic
If the eukaryotic condition arose, independently, several different times during evolutionary history, and if ancestors of these different lineages are extant and are classified in the domain Eukarya, then the domain Eukarya would beA) paraphyletic. B) polyphyletic. C) monophyletic.
When using a cladistic approach to systematics, which of the following is considered most important for classification?A) shared primitive charactersB) analogous primitive charactersC) shared derived characters D) the number of homoplasiesE) overall phenotypic similarity
The four-chambered hearts of birds and the four-chambered hearts of mammals evolved independently of each other. If one were unaware of this independence, then one might logically conclude thatA) the birds were the first to evolve a 4-chambered heart.B) birds and mammals are more distantly related than is actually the case.C) early mammals possessed feathers.D) the common ancestor of birds and mammals had a four-chambered heart.E) birds and mammals should be placed in the same family.
Cladograms (a type of phylogenetic tree) constructed from evidence from molecular systematics are based on similarities inA) morphology.B) the pattern of embryological development.C) biochemical pathways.D) habitat and lifestyle choices.E) mutations to homologous genes.
A researcher wants to determine the genetic relatedness of several breeds of dog (Canis familiaris). The researcher should compare homologous sequences of __________ that are known to be __________.A) carbohydrates; poorly conserved B) fatty acids; highly conservedC) lipids; poorly conservedD) proteins or nucleic acids; poorly conservedE) amino acids; highly conserved
Nucleic acid sequences that undergo few changes over the course of evolutionary time are said to be conserved. Conserved sequences of nucleic acidsA) are found in the most crucial portions of proteins.B) include all mitochondrial DNA.C) are abundant in ribosomes.D) are proportionately more common in eukaryotic introns than in eukaryotic exons.E) comprise a larger proportion of pre-mRNA (immature mRNA) than of mature mRNA.
Species that are not closely related and that do not share many anatomical similarities can still be placed together on the same phylogenetic tree by comparing theirA) plasmids.B) chloroplast genomes.C) mitochondrial genomes.D) homologous genes that are poorly conserved.E) homologous genes that are highly conserved.
Which kind of DNA should provide the best molecular clock for gauging the evolutionary relatedness of several species whose common ancestor became extinct billions of years ago?A) that coding for ribosomal RNAB) intronic DNA belonging to a gene whose product performs a crucial functionC) paralogous DNA that has lost its function (i.e., no longer codes for functional gene product)D) mitochondrial DNAE) exonic DNA that codes for a non-crucial part of a polypeptide
The lakes of northern Minnesota are home to many similar species of damselflies of the genus Enallagma that have apparently undergone speciation from ancestral stock since the last glacial retreat about 10,000 years ago. Sequencing which of the following would probably be most useful in sorting out evolutionary relationships among these closely related species?A) nuclear DNAB) mitochondrial DNAC) small nuclear RNA D) ribosomal RNAE) amino acids in proteins
Which statement represents the best explanation for the observation that the nuclear DNA of wolves and domestic dogs has a very high degree of homology?A) Dogs and wolves have very similar morphologies. B) Dogs and wolves belong to the same order.C) Dogs and wolves are both members of the order Carnivora. D) Dogs and wolves shared a common ancestor very recently.E) Convergent evolution has occurred.
What is true of gene duplication (NOTE: gene duplication is a process that is distinct from DNA replication)?A) It is a type of point mutation.B) Its occurrence is limited to diploid species.C) Its occurrence is limited to organisms without functional DNA-repair enzymes. D) It is most similar in its effects to a deletion mutation.E) It can increase the size of a genome over evolutionary time.
Theoretically, molecular clocks are to molecular phylogenies as radiometric dating is to phylogenies that are based on theA) fossil record.B) geographic distribution of extant species.C) morphological similarities among extant species. D) amino acid sequences of homologous polypeptides.

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Which is an obsolete kingdom that includes prokaryotic organisms? A) PlantaeB) FungiC) Animalia D) ProtistaE) Monera
Members of which kingdom have cell walls and are all heterotrophic? A) PlantaeB) FungiC) Animalia D) ProtistaE) Monera
In a comparison of birds with mammals, having four appendages is A) a shared ancestral character.B) a shared derived character.C) a character useful for distinguishing birds from mammals. D) an example of analogy rather than homology.E) a character useful for sorting bird species.
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