What’s in paint?

In ours summer 2013 educational collection on paint and also color technology, we start with a review of one of the basics: what ingredients room in paint? The range of paint products available can it is in overwhelming. And also with each variety of paint offering different properties that impact the result of a design project, understanding what"s in a can of repaint is crucial to success.

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All paints generally have 4 main ingredients -- pigments, binders, solvents (liquids) and additives. Pigments provide color and hide, when binders job-related to "bind" the colors together and also create the repaint film. Solvents room the liquids that suspend the ingredients and allow you to location the paint on the surfaces, and additives space ingredients that provide particular paint properties such together mildew resistance. All four ingredients incorporate to provide paint that meets your details design needs. Come begin...

Pigments - provide Color, Hide and also Bulk

Pigments are finely ground corpuscle that space dispensed right into paint and administer color and also hiding properties. There room two primary varieties of colours - element pigments and also extender pigments.

Prime pigments are those that contribute to both wet and also dry hide in paint. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is the many costly pigment and it contributes straight to a paint"s wet hide, while offering whiteness Colorants room prime pigments that administer the actual color within the can. There space two main varieties - organic and inorganic.

Organic colorants administer the brighter colors, and examples of this pigments incorporate hansa yellow and phthalo blue. These space not very durable because that exterior repaint application.

Inorganic colorants room the duller, earthy colors and are an ext durable for exterior repaint application. Instances of these kinds of pigments encompass red oxide, yellow ochre and also umber.

Extender pigments room lower price pigments that provide extra load or bulk to the paint. These varieties of pigments contribute only to a

paints dry hide, but are crucial in order to regulate gloss. Some extender pigments likewise provide added film power in the locations of scrub or abrasion resistance. Commonly used extenders incorporate clay, silica, diatomaceous silica, calcium carbonate, talc and also zinc oxide.

Clay: Used largely in interior paints, clay gives hiding power.Silica: Provides magnified durability in exterior paints and also scrub and also abrasion resistance.Diatomaceous silica: consists of fossilized organisms, this form of silica is supplied to manage sheen levels.Calcium Carbonate: used in both interior and exterior paints, calcium carbonate, likewise called chalk, is a basic purpose, low cost, short hide pigment.Talc: likewise called magnesium silicate, talc is a soft, basic purpose extender pigment.Zinc oxide: Used primarily in primers and exterior paints, zinc oxide offers mildew resistance, corrosion inhibition and also stain impede support.

Binders - administer Performance and Support because that Dry repaint Film

Binders are ingredients that administer a binding effect that stop the pigments together to develop a dry film top top the surface. A paints binder is the an essential ingredient that straight relates come a paints performance, consisting of adhesion,, washability, scrub resistance, fade resistance or gloss retention.


Alkyd (oil) based binders are made from various oil derivatives such together linseed oil, tung oil, and soya oil. Traditional alkyd paints dried to a an extremely hard complete and carry out superior adhesion and also flow and also leveling; however, they will certainly yellow in light colors and are vulnerable to oxidation and also chalking when provided on exterior surfaces. As an innovation and VOC restrictions have changed over the years, under paints today are made with traditional alkyd binders. A newer technology based on amendment oil binder is available; alkyd emulsion.. This type of hybrid binder offers you oil-like performance with the ease of soap and also water clean-up. Alkyd-emulsion paints dried harder, flow much more smoothly than typical latex paints; however, they may still yellow in lighter colors. If provided on exterior surfaces based on UV exposure, alkyd-emulsion paints may at some point oxidize, and chalk over time.

Latex Paint and Ingredients

Latex binder are offered in water-based paints. There room various species of latex binder available, such together 100% acrylic, styrene acrylic or vinyl acrylic, each providing particular performance characteristics.

Acrylic Paint and also Ingredients

100% Acrylic binders: frequently used in exterior paints as the benefits include adhesion (both wet and also dry), fade resistance, alkali and efflorescence resistance. 100% acrylic binders are typically regarded as the best as whole performing.Adhesion under wet conditions enable for greater performance in blister, cracking and peeling resistance.UV fade resistance enables the painted surface to maintain its color and also sheen longer.Alkali resistance method the repaint is much less likely come “burn" over fresh concrete or masonry. Vinyl acrylic, likewise called PVA, binders: regularly used in inner paints as the benefits include scrub resistance and also washability.Styrenated acrylic binders: often used in stonework primer/sealers and also top coats due to its resistance to alkali burn and efflorescence,

Solvents (liquids) --- provides a auto for the pigment and binder to acquire from the deserve to onto the surface

Solvents, or liquids, space the auto for enabling paint to obtain from the have the right to to the surfaces and these species of liquids differ relying on the type of paint. Combining the pigments and binders, taken into consideration solids, through the liquids, creates the repaint coating you check out in the repaint can.

Oil-based and also alkyd paints: the liquid is commonly paint diluent or other form of solvent.Latex paints: the liquid is mainly water.

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Higher-quality paints enable for an ext solids, generally 35-40%, depending upon gloss level. Solids by volume indicate how much paint will stay on the surface ar after the liquids have evaporated. The as whole paint performance is straight attributable come the make-up the the solids. Just because a paint has actually high solids by volume walk not always translate come a high top quality product..

Additives -- Provides added property enhancements

Additives are offered in paints come create extr performance properties and the most generally used are:

Thickening agents: gives “viscosity" or extr thickness therefore the paint deserve to be used properly; also allows for much better “flow and also leveling" and also resists a splatter impact when rolling the end the paintSurfactants or soaps: offers paint security so the paint won"t separate; also keeps the pigments distributed in the liquid to allow for far better hiding power and additional assurance for color accuracyBiocides: in latex paints, there room two varieties of biocides used – a preservative to save bacteria native growing; and also a mildewcide to discourage mildew growthDefoamers: gives a way to break bubbles as they room formed during the paint manufacturing process, once paint is shaken in ~ the tint center and when repaint is used onto a surfaceCo-solvents: provides added liquids to the water and can help the binder in creating a great film when applied in cold temperatures and assists to brush properties so paint has actually time to be used before drying

All 4 ingredients are vital to creating the foundation for a top-quality paint. Happy painting!