A an international scientific and also societal venture was set in movement by the nanotechnology vision formulated in 1999 that motivated the nationwide Nanotechnology initiative (NNI) and also other national and also international R&D programs. Creating foundational knowledge at the nanoscale has been the main emphasis of the nanotechnology research ar in the an initial decade. As of 2009, this new knowledge underpinned about a quarter of a trillion dollars worldwide market, that which around $91 billion was in US commodities that incorporate nanoscale components. Nanotechnology is currently evolving toward becoming a general-purpose technology by 2020, encompassing 4 generations of products with increasing structural and also dynamic complexity: (1) passive nanostructures, (2) active nanostructures, (3) nanosystems, and also (4) molecular nanosystems. Through 2020, the raising integration of nanoscale science and engineering knowledge and also of nanosystems assures mass applications of nanotechnology in industry, medicine, and also computing, and also in far better comprehension and conservation that nature. Nanotechnology’s quick development global is a testimony to the transformative power of identify a principle or trend and also laying out a vision in ~ the synergistic confluence of diverse scientific study areas. This chapter offers a brief perspective top top the advancement of the NNI because 2000 in the international context, the main outcomes of the R&D program after 10 years, the administration aspects specific to this emerging field, great learned, and also most importantly, exactly how the nanotechnology ar should prepare for the future.

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The national Science foundation (NSF) created its very first program devoted to nanoparticles in 1991 and also from 1997–1998 funded a cross-disciplinary regimen entitled “Partnerships in Nanotechnology” (NSF 1997). However, just in 1998–2000 were fragmented areas of nanoscale science and engineering lugged together under combined science-based an interpretation and a 10-year R&D vision for nanotechnology. These to be laid out in the 1999 national Science foundation workshop report, Nanotechnology study Directions (Roco et al. 1999), i m sorry was adopted in 2000 together an official record by national Science and modern technology Council (NSTC). These were the far-ranging steps toward establishing nanotechnology together a defining technology of the 21st century. The definition of nanotechnology (see sidebar) to be agreed to in 1998–1999 ~ consultation with experts in over 20 countries (Siegel et al. 1999) and completed some degree of international acceptance. This an interpretation is based on novel actions of matter and ability of scientists to restructure that matter at one intermediate length scale. This is conceptually various from the previous meanings used before 1999 that were concentrated on either tiny features under a offered size, ultra-precision engineering, ultra-dispersions, or developing patterns of atoms and also molecules on surfaces. The internationally produced vision published in 1999 offers guidance because that nanotechnology discovery and innovation in this cross-disciplinary, cross-sector domain. That has come to be clear after around 60 countries emerged nanotechnology tasks by 2004 the without this meaning and corresponding long-term vision, nanotechnology would have actually not been emerged on the exact same accelerated, conceptually unifying and also transforming route (Roco 2004).

 
Definition that nanotechnology (set the end in Nanotechnology research Directions, 1999)Footnote

(Roco et al. 1999).

Nanotechnology is the capability to control and also restructure the issue at the atomic and also molecular levels in the selection of around 1–100 nm, and exploiting the distinctive properties and also phenomena in ~ that scale as contrasted to those tasiilaq.neted with solitary atoms or molecule or mass behavior. The aim is to create materials, devices, and also systems with fundamentally new properties and functions by design their tiny structure. This is the ultimate frontier to economically change materials properties, and the most efficient length scale for manufacturing and molecular medicine. The exact same principles and also tools room applicable to different locations of relevance and also may aid establish a unifying platform for science, engineering, and an innovation at the nanoscale. The change from single atoms or molecules actions to collective actions of atomic and molecular assemblies is encountered in nature, and nanotechnology exploits this herbal threshold.

In 2010, the global Standardization company (ISO) technological Committee 229 ~ above nanotechnologies (ISO 2010) authorize a an interpretation of nanotechnology that basically has the same facets as those the the 1999 definition: the application of scientific knowledge to manipulate and also control issue in the nanoscale variety to manipulate size- and also structure-dependent properties and also phenomena distinctive from those at smaller or larger scales. Full acceptance and use that the ISO meaning in the environmental, health, and also safety (EHS) community has not yet been solved (Lövestam et al. 2010). Nevertheless, in 1999 together now, there has actually been a mutual acceptance of the worth of plainly defining nanotechnology come support typical language and purpose for clinical discourse, engineering, education, manufacturing, commerce, regulation, and tracking that investments. Defining the permanent vision because that nanotechnology advance is especially vital because of nanotechnology’s rapid introduction as a fundamentally new scientific and engineering paradigm and because of its wide implications for societal wellbeing.

The 1999 unifying meaning of and long-term vision because that nanotechnology paved the means for the US nationwide Nanotechnology to plan (NNI), announced in January 2000. The key reasons for beginning the NNI to be to fill significant gaps in fundamental knowledge of matter and also to go after the novel and economic applications anticipated because that nanotechnology. Coherent and also sustained R&D program in the ar were quickly announced by various other nations: Japan (April 2001), Korea (July 2001), the European ar (March 2002), Germany (May 2002), China (2002), and also Taiwan (September 2002). End 60 countries developed programs at a national level in between 2001 and 2004, partially inspired or motivated by the NNI. However, the very first and largest such regime was the NNI itself. Its cumulative funding because 2000 of an ext than $12 billion, including about $1.8 billion in 2010, places the NNI 2nd only to the space program in the united state civilian scientific research and technology investments. This 2010 global study, involving experts from over 35 countries, intends to redefine the purposes for nanotechnology breakthrough for the following decade.


Six crucial indicators, defined below and in Table 1, assist portray the value of investments in nanotechnology advance and associated science breakthroughs and technical applications. These indicators show average yearly growth rates worldwide of roughly 25% in between 2000 and 2008. The average growth rates of every indicators dropped by an ext than half global during the financial crisis of 2009. They show up to be return to greater rates in 2010 compared to 2009, however with far-reaching differences between countries and domains that relevance.


5.

Global nanotechnology R&D yearly investment indigenous private and also public sources reached about $15 billion in 2008, the which about $3.7 billion was in the US, consisting of the Federal federal government contribution of about $1.55 billion.

Because the the technological and economic promise, nanotechnology has penetrated the emerging and also classical industries particularly after 2002–2003. The boost in nanocomponent complexity and the ratio of nanotechnology penetration is faster in emerging areas such as nanoelectronics and slower in more classical industry sectors such as hardwood and document industry as shown in Table 2. Penetration the nanotechnology in key industries is pertained to the percentage sector spends top top R&D. Penetration that nanotechnology in 2 biomedical eras is exemplified in chapter 13 (Sect. 13.8.10 in Roco et al. 2010).


Figure 4 mirrors the balance of commonwealth nanotechnology investments and return on invest (outputs) in the united state in 2009. Other particular indicators of the national investment in nanotechnology have actually increased significantly in the US because 2000.


*

Estimation that the outcomes of us federal investment in nanotechnology R&D in 2009. The figure shows an annual balance between investments and outputs. *The matching R&D was around ten times smaller sized in 1999 as soon as the fundamental research for 2009 commodities may have actually started. **The estimated market of assets where nanoscale materials are essential; taxes space estimated based on Council of chemistry Research median estimation because that chemical industry. ***Estimated variety of nanotechnology-related jobs, assuming around $500,000/year/job


The details annual federal R&D nanotechnology expenditure per capita has grown from around $1 in fiscal year (FY) 2000 to around $5.7 in 2010.

The portion of the commonwealth R&D nanotechnology invest as contrasted to all actual federal R&D expenditures flourished from 0.39% to around 1.5% in 2008.

Qualitative changes likewise are important to examining the influence of the NNI, even if there is no solitary indicator to characterize them. These include (1) the creation of a colorful multidisciplinary, cross-sector, international ar of professionals and also organizations engaged in various dimensions of the nanotechnology enterprise; (2) alters in the clinical research society that space coming around through energizing interdisciplinary academic research collaborations v industry and the medical field; and also (3) progressively unified concepts for engineering facility nanostructures “from the bottom up” for brand-new materials, biology and also healthcare technologies, digital information technologies, assistive cognition technologies, and multicomponent systems.


In 2000, that was approximated that nanotechnology would grow in 2 foundational phases from passive nanostructures to complicated nanosystems by style (illustrated in Figs. 5, 6):


*

Creating a new field and also community in 2 foundational phases (“NS&E” is nanoscale science and also engineering)


*

Timeline because that the beginning of industrial prototyping and nanotechnology commercialization: development of brand-new generations of products and also productive procedures in 2000–2020 (Roco 2004, 2006)


The first foundational phase (2001–2010), i m sorry was concentrated as guess on inter-disciplinary study at the nanoscale, took location in the first decade after specifying the irreversible vision. Its main results are discovery of brand-new phenomena, properties, and functions in ~ the nanoscale; synthetic of a library of materials as building blocks because that potential future applications; device advancement; and development of existing commodities by incorporating reasonably simple nanoscale components. This phase, dominated by a science-centric ecosystem, might be dubbed “Nano 1.”

The second foundational phase (2011–2020), will certainly be focused on nanoscale science and also engineering integration, is projected to transition toward direct measurements with good time resolution, science-based design of fundamentally new products, and also general-purpose and also mass use of nanotechnology. The focus of R&D and also applications is meant to transition toward more complicated nanosystems, new areas the relevance, and also fundamentally brand-new products. This step is meant to be dominated by an R&D ecosystem thrust by socio-economic considerations; it might be referred to as “Nano 2.”

The transition from the Nano 1 step to the Nano 2 step is focused on achieving straight measurements at the nanoscale, science-based design of nanomaterials and also nanosystems, and also general-purpose technology integration (Table 3). Several R&D targets for accomplishment by 2020 are presented in this chapter and also detailed in this volume.


After 2020, nanotechnology R&D is projected to construct closely with various other emerging and converging technologies, creating new science and also engineering domains and manufacturing paradigms (Roco 2002; Roco and also Bainbridge 2003). In 1999/2000, a convergence was reached in defining the nanoscale world because typical phenomena in product nanostructures were far better measured and understood with a brand-new set the tools, and new nanostructures had actually been determined at the foundations of organic systems, nanomanufacturing, and also communications. The new an obstacle for the following decade is building systems from the nanoscale that will call for the merged use the nanoscale laws, biological principles, details technology, and also system integration. ~ 2020, one may expect divergent trends as a function of system architectures. Several feasible divergent trends are system architectures based upon guided molecular and also macromolecular assembling, robotics, biomimetics, and also evolutionary approaches.

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A change in study toward “active nanostructures” that adjust their ingredient or state during use has been noted in the rapid rise of related publications due to the fact that 2005 (Subramanian et al. 2009). The percent of papers on active nanostructures much more than doubled to 11% of total nanotechnology papers in 2006. One observed shift to arrival of nanosystems shows up to be associated to commercial understanding (Fig. 7, NCMS 2010); more than 50% that 270 surveyed manufacturing companies expressed attention in production or architecture using nanoscale science and engineering by about 2011.