At the start of the First civilization War, Germany hoped to prevent fighting on 2 fronts by knocking out France before turning to Russia, France’s ally. The early German offensive had some beforehand success, yet there were not sufficient reinforcements immediately accessible to sustain momentum. The French and British launched a counter-offensive in ~ the Marne (6-10 September 1914) and also after number of days of bitter fighting the Germans retreated. 

 

Germany’s fail to defeat the French and the British at the Marne also had crucial strategic implications. The Russians had actually mobilised an ext quickly than the Germans had anticipated and also launched their very first offensive within 2 weeks the the war’s outbreak. The battle of Tannenberg in respectable 1914 ended in German victory, however the combination of German win in the east and also defeat in the west expected the war would no be quick, yet protracted and also extended across several fronts. 

 




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The battle of the Marne also marked the end of mobile war on the Western Front. Complying with their retreat, the Germans re-engaged Allied pressures on the Aisne, wherein fighting started to stagnate right into trench warfare. 

 

The opening months of the war caused profound shock as result of the large casualties led to by modern weapons. Casualty on every fronts for the year 1914 topped five million, with a million men killed. This was a scale of violence unknown in any previous war. The disastrous casualties continual in open up warfare expected that soldiers on all fronts had started to protect themselves by digging trenches, which would overcome the Western Front until 1918.


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2. Gallipoli


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The Gallipoli campaign (25 April 1915 - 9 January 1916) was the land-based aspect of a strategy plan to enable Allied ships to pass v the Dardanelles, capture Constantinople (now Istanbul) and also ultimately knock ottoman Turkey out of the war. However Allied to plan were based on the mistaken id that the Ottomans might be conveniently overcome.  

At dawn ~ above 25 April 1915, allied troops came down on the Gallipoli peninsula in footrest Turkey. General sir Ian Hamilton decided come make 2 landings, place the british 29th department at Cape Helles and the Australian and new Zealand army Corps (ANZAC) north of Gaba Tepe in an area later on dubbed Anzac Cove. Both landings were quickly contained by established Ottoman troops and also neither the British no one the Anzacs to be able come advance. 


Trench warfare quickly took hold, mirroring the fighting the the west Front. Casualties placed heavily and in the summer heat conditions rapidly deteriorated. Sickness to be rampant, food quickly became inedible and there were huge swarms of black color corpse flies. In respectable a brand-new assault was introduced north the Anzac Cove. This attack, together with a new landing at Suvla Bay, easily failed and stalemate returned.  

In December, the was determined to evacuate – first Anzac and Suvla, and also then Helles in January 1916. Gallipoli became a defining moment in the background of both Australia and brand-new Zealand, revealing characteristics that both nations have provided to define their soldiers: endurance, determination, initiative and also "mateship". Because that the Ottomans, it was a short respite in the decline of your empire. But through the emergence of Mustafa Kemal (later well-known as Atatürk) as one of the campaign"s leading figures, it likewise led come the foundation of modern-day Turkey.