Key PointsHydrogen bonds are strong intermolecular forces developed once a hydrogen atom bonded to an electronegative atom approaches a nearby electronegative atom.Greater electronegativity of the hydrogen bond acceptor will result in an increase in hydrogen-bond stamina.The hydrogen bond is just one of the strongest intermolecular attractions, but weaker than a covalent or an ionic bond.Hydrogen bonds are responsible for holding together DNA, proteins, and various other macromolecules.

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Termshydrogen bondThe attraction between a partially positively charged hydrogen atom attached to a extremely electronegative atom (such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine) and also another surrounding electronegative atom.electronegativityThe tendency of an atom or molecule to draw electrons towards itself, create dipoles, and thus develop bonds.intermolecularA kind of interactivity between 2 various molecules.

Forming a Hydrogen Bond

A hydrogen bond is the electromagnetic attraction created in between a partially positively charged hydrogen atom attached to a very electronegative atom and one more adjacent electronegative atom. A hydrogen bond is a type of dipole-dipole interaction; it is not a true chemical bond. These attractions can occur in between molecules (intermolecularly) or within different parts of a single molecule (intramolecularly).

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Hydrogen bonding in waterThis is a space-filling sphere diagram of the interactions between sepaprice water molecules.

Hydrogen Bond Donor

A hydrogen atom attached to a relatively electronegative atom is a hydrogen bond donor. This electronegative atom is normally fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen. The electronegative atom attracts the electron cloud from roughly the hydrogen nucleus and, by decentralizing the cloud, leaves the hydrogen atom with a positive partial charge. Due to the fact that of the tiny size of hydrogen loved one to other atoms and molecules, the resulting charge, though just partial, is stronger. In the molecule ethanol, tbelow is one hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom, which is very electronegative. This hydrogen atom is a hydrogen bond donor.

Hydrogen Bond Acceptor

A hydrogen bond outcomes as soon as this solid partial positive charge attracts a lone pair of electrons on an additional atom, which becomes the hydrogen bond acceptor. An electronegative atom such as fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen is a hydrogen bond acceptor, regardmuch less of whether it is bonded to a hydrogen atom or not. Greater electronegativity of the hydrogen bond acceptor will certainly produce a stronger hydrogen bond. The diethyl ether molecule contains an oxygen atom that is not bonded to a hydrogen atom, making it a hydrogen bond acceptor.

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Hydrogen bond donor and also hydrogen bond acceptorEthanol has a hydrogen atom that is a hydrogen bond donor bereason it is bonded to an electronegative oxygen atom, which is extremely electronegative, so the hydrogen atom is slightly positive. Diethyl ether contains an oxygen atom that is a hydrogen bond acceptor because it is not bonded to a hydrogen atom and also so is slightly negative.

A hydrogen attached to carbon deserve to likewise take part in hydrogen bonding as soon as the carbon atom is bound to electronegative atoms, as is the case in chloroform (CHCl3). As in a molecule where a hydrogen is attached to nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, the electronegative atom attracts the electron cloud from around the hydrogen nucleus and also, by decentralizing the cloud, leaves the hydrogen atom through a positive partial charge.

Interactive: Hydrogen BondingExplore hydrogen bonds creating in between polar molecules, such as water. Hydrogen bonds are shown via dotted lines. Sjust how partial charges and run the model. Wright here carry out hydrogen bonds form? Try changing the temperature of the design. How does the pattern of hydrogen bonding define the lattice that renders up ice crystals?

Applications for Hydrogen Bonds

Hydrogen bonds happen in inorganic molecules, such as water, and organic molecules, such as DNA and also proteins. The two complementary strands of DNA are hosted together by hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotides (A&T, C&G). Hydrogen bonding in water contributes to its distinct properties, including its high boiling allude (100 °C) and also surconfront stress.

Water droplets on a leafThe hydrogen bonds developed between water molecules in water droplets are stronger than the various other intermolecular pressures in between the water molecules and the leaf, contributing to high surconfront stress and distinct water dropallows.

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In biology, intramolecular hydrogen bonding is partly responsible for the second, tertiary, and also quaternary structures of proteins and nucleic acids. The hydrogen bonds assist the proteins and also nucleic acids form and keep particular forms.


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