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Key People:Antoine LavoisierWilliam Thomson, Baron KelvinHenry CavendishSir Benjamin Thompson, count von RumfordJames Prescott Joule...(Show more)Related Topics:latent heatEnthalpyThermal conductionHeat capacityCaloric theory...(Show more)

heat, power that is transferred from one body to one more as the result of a distinction in temperature. If two bodies at various temperatures are lugged together, power is transferred—i.e., heat flows—from the hotter human body to the colder. The effect of this move of power usually, but not always, is an increase in the temperature that the chillier body and also a diminish in the temperature the the hotter body. A substance may absorb warmth without an increase in temperature by changing from one physical state (or phase) come another, together from a solid to a fluid (melting), native a solid come a vapour (sublimation), indigenous a liquid to a vapour (boiling), or native one solid type to an additional (usually dubbed a crystalline transition). The important difference between heat and also temperature (heat being a kind of energy and also temperature a measure of the quantity of that energy present in a body) was clarified during the 18th and also 19th centuries.

Heat as a form of energy

Because every one of the plenty of forms the energy, consisting of heat, have the right to be converted right into work, amounts of energy are expressed in systems of work, such together joules, foot-pounds, kilowatt-hours, or calories. Specific relationships exist in between the quantities of heat included to or gotten rid of from a body and the magnitude of the results on the state of the body. The 2 units of warmth most commonly used room the calorie and also the British heat unit (BTU). The calorie (or gram-calorie) is the quantity of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water indigenous 14.5 to 15.5 °C; the BTU is the lot of power required to raise the temperature that one pound of water native 63 come 64 °F. One BTU is about 252 calories. Both interpretations specify that the temperature transforms are to be measured at a continuous pressure of one atmosphere, because the quantities of energy connected depend in component on pressure. The calorie supplied in measure the power content of foods is the huge calorie, or kilogram-calorie, same to 1,000 gram-calories.


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In general, the lot of energy required come raise a unit massive of a substance through a specified temperature term is called the warm capacity, or the certain heat, of the substance. The quantity of power necessary to raise the temperature the a human body one level varies depending upon the restraints imposed. If heat is added to a gas limit at consistent volume, the quantity of warm needed to cause a one-degree temperature climb is less than if the heat is added to the same gas cost-free to broaden (as in a cylinder fitted through a movable piston) and also so carry out work. In the an initial case, all the energy goes right into raising the temperature the the gas, yet in the 2nd case, the energy not only contributes to the temperature rise of the gas but also provides the energy necessary for the job-related done through the gas on the piston. Consequently, the certain heat the a substance relies on these conditions. The most commonly determined certain heats space the details heat at consistent volume and also the specific heat at constant pressure. The heat capacities of plenty of solid aspects were displayed to be closely related to their atomic weights by the French researchers Pierre-Louis Dulong and also Alexis-Thérèse Petit in 1819. The so-called legislation of Dulong and Petit was advantageous in identify the atom weights of specific metallic elements, yet there are many exceptions come it; the deviations to be later found to it is in explainable on the communication of quantum mechanics.

It is incorrect come speak the the heat in a body, because heat is limited to energy being transferred. Energy stored in a human body is not heat (nor is the work, as work is additionally energy in transit). The is customary, however, come speak the sensible and also latent heat. The implicitly heat, likewise called the warmth of vaporization, is the lot of power necessary to adjust a liquid to a vapour at continuous temperature and also pressure. The energy required come melt a solid to a fluid is dubbed the heat of fusion, and the heat of sublimation is the power necessary to change a solid directly to a vapour, these changes additionally taking ar under problems of constant temperature and pressure.

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Air is a mixture the gases and water vapour, and also it is possible for the water present in the wait to readjust phase; i.e., the may come to be liquid (rain) or solid (snow). Come distinguish between the energy linked with the phase adjust (the implicitly heat) and the power required because that a temperature change, the principle of sensible warm was introduced. In a mixture of water vapour and also air, the sensible warmth is the energy necessary to produce a details temperature change excluding any type of energy compelled for a step change.